老いの一筆

Fair is foul, and foul is fair – Macbeth Act 1 SceneⅠ・・・きれいはきたない、きたないはきれい

Don Quixote 再び「武士は食わねど高楊枝」

この二日間、どうもスッキリしない、なんとなくもやもやしていました。

原因は、本当はスペイン語にあるのに、英語にないものだから、意味から訳したのではないか、この疑問にあることに今朝、気づきました。

善は急げ、さっそくネットで原文を見ました。

¡Miserable del bien nacido que va dando pistos a su honra, comiendo mal y a puerta cerrada, haciendo hipócrita al palillo de dientes con que sale a la calle después de no haber comido cosa que le obligue a limpiárselos!

40年前、仕事の関係でスペイン語をかじったものですから、これで頭痛がするようなことはありません。

Miserable:(L.) miserabilis
nacido:(L.)natio
honra:(L.)honor
comiendo:(L.)comedo 動詞comer
mal:(L.)male
puerta:←puerto
cerrada:←cerrado
haciendo:動詞hacer
hipócrita:hypocricy
dientes:dentistを連想
sale:動詞salir
calle:通り
después:その後
comido:動詞comer
cosa:case
obligue:(L.)obligoから?
limpiárse:limpidに似ています

スペイン語:
«¡Miserable del bien nacido que va dando pistos a su honra, comiendo mal y a puerta cerrada, haciendo hipócrita al palillo de dientes con que sale a la calle después de no haber comido cosa que le obligue a limpiárselos!

英語:
Poor gentleman of good family! always cockering up his honour, dining miserably and in secret, and making a hypocrite of the toothpick with which he sallies out into the street after eating nothing to oblige him to use it!

やはり、原文にも相当する諺はみられませんでした。半日使ってしまいましたが、これでスッキリ。我が寿命の一刻、安いものです。

附:
1.武士は食わねど高楊枝
The samurai betrays no weakness when starving.
The samurai glories in honorable poverty.(偶然の一致?)
(研究社新和英大辞典第4版)
The samurai glories in honorable poverty..(偶然の一致?)
(旺文社和英中辞典)
ぶし 武士 a samurai(英語化している)
例文なし
英語ともあろう言語がこんな気の抜けたサイダーのような表現しかないはずがありません。今度、「やせ我慢」・「背伸び」あたりで引いてみます。

2.初めて疑問符や感嘆符が文頭にさかさまなってついているのを見た時驚きました。

3.単語の部分はだいぶ怪しいです。


武士は食わねど高楊枝 ‐Don Quixote

寄り道しながら読み続けています。

英語や中国語にも、当然似たような意味の言葉がありますが、ズバリ楊枝は私には初めてです。

スペイン語が日本語を真似したとも、日本語がスペイン語を真似したとも思えません。

面白いです。

下巻 第44章

~~~~~
Poor gentleman of good family!
always cockering up his honour, dining miserably and in secret, and
making a hypocrite of the toothpick with which he sallies out into the
street after eating nothing to oblige him to use it!
~~~~~
那些可怜的有身份的人,为了炫耀自己的身份,在家里偷偷地胡乱吃一些东西,牙齿间并没有什么可剔之物,可是走到大街上却要装模作样地剔牙!

牆上密排坎窞  ‐ 聊斎志異

牆上密排坎窞

牆(へい)の上には鐵の刺(はり)がびっしり排(なら)んでついてゐた(柴田訳)

私の聊斎志異

ステップ1 繁体字訳を軽く読む(大体の筋が分かる程度が私の限界)
ステップ2 原文の朗読を無料ネットで聴く(さっぱり聞き取れません)
ステップ3 原文を見る
ステップ4 原文を見ながら、朗読を聴く(読めない字に発音記号をつける)
ステップ5 繁体字訳を精読する(単語の書き出し)  
ステップ6 簡体字訳を精読する(同上)
ステップ7 柴田訳を対照しながら、原文を精読する(同上)
ステップ8 単語ノートの作成(後日に回すことが多い)

今朝もこの工程表に従って、《狐女》を読みました。

そして、「牆上密排坎窞」の所では、クライミングウォールの原型を見たようで愉快になりました。

しかし、最後の柴田訳で、アレレ。

坎窞を刺に替えて訳した説明が添えてありました。

註(四)原文には坎窞とあるが、坎窞は穴で、牆上にあるべきでない。多分誤寫であらうと思ひ、刺としておいた。忍び返しなのである。

「上」(shangの4声)は、日本語の上の意味を含めて、英語の「on」です。

講談社中日辞典に、好例が載っています。

墙上挂着结婚照 (壁には結婚の記念写真が掛けてある)

朗文英漢双解活用辞典(Longman Active Study English-Chinese Dictionary)には、
「on」  touching, supported by, hanging from, or connected with
    在・・・上
     a lamp on the table/the wall 卓上/墙上的一盏灯

穴と訳すよりくぼみと訳す方が適切かもしれません。

~~~~~

狐女(原文) 

  伊袞,九江人。夜有女來,相與寢處。心知為狐,而愛其美,祕不告人,父母亦不知也。久而形體支離。父母窮詰,始實告之。父母大憂,使人更代伴寢,兼施敕勒,卒不能禁。翁自與同衾,則狐不至;易人,則又至。伊問狐。狐曰:「世俗符咒,何能制我。然俱有倫理,豈有對翁行淫者!」翁聞之,益伴子不去,狐遂絕。後值叛寇橫恣,村人盡竄,一家相失。伊奔入崑侖山,四顧荒涼。日既暮,心恐甚。忽見一女子來,近視之,則狐女也。離亂之中,相見欣慰。女曰:「日已西下,君姑止此。我相佳地,暫創一室,以避虎狼。」乃北行數武,遂蹲莽中,不知何作。少刻返,拉伊南去,約十餘步,又曳之回。忽見大木千章,繞一高亭,銅牆鐵柱,頂類金箔;近視,則牆可及肩,四圍並無門戶,而牆上密排坎窞,女以足踏之而過,伊亦從之。既入,疑金屋非人工可造,問所自來。女笑曰:「君子居之,明日即以相贈。金鐵各千萬,計半生喫著不盡矣。」既而告別。伊苦留之,乃止。曰:「被人厭棄,已拚永絕;今又不能自堅矣。」及醒,狐女不知何時已去。天明,踰垣而出。回視臥處,並無亭屋,惟四針插指環內,覆脂合其上;大樹,則叢荊老棘也。


卷十一 狐女(簡体字訳)
~~~
墙上密密麻麻地排满了坑窝。狐女踏着这些坑翻墙进入亭内,伊袞也跟着进去。
~~~

狐女 卷十一 第廿三篇(繁体字訳)
~~~
倒是牆上密密麻麻排著小洞。狐女就踩著小洞過了牆,伊袞也學著她的樣子過去了。
~~~

A Book of English Essays ― 待てば海路の日和あり

昨日、何気なしに、また期待もなしに、かつて愛読したイギリス随筆集がネットにあるかどうか探りました。

ピン・ポーン。

あるにはありましたが、OCRの読み取りがひどく雑でした。まったくチェックが入っていません。

どれほどひどいか、紹介しましょう。「間違い探し」のお遊びにどうぞ。37か所みつけました。もっとあるかもしれません。

附:
島ではペンギン・ブックスを1ページ、1ページ拡大コピーして読みました。白内障に冒されて、新書版サイズの活字が読めなかったのです。そのコピー綴じは去年の3月、還俗の時はあたふたして、置き忘れてしまいました。

~~~~~

INTRODUCTION

A Minimum Definition

No elaborate definition of the Essay is necessary for those
who read the following selection. The English Essay has
a multitude of forms and manners, and scarcely any rules
and regulations. A minimum definition would be to say
that the Essay is a piece of prose, usually on the short
, side, which is not devoted to narrative. The ess^.yist may
use anecdotes to make his point; he may even take a leaf
out of the novelist’s book and create characters to illus-
trate his owm opinions. But his chief interest is not that
of the story-teller. The essayist’s usual role is that of the
social philosopher, the critic, the annotator.

But before we are lured any further in this attempt to
identify the special interests of the essa;^dst, let us look
over a few of the many types of Essay included in this
selection. First, Bacon, the father of the English Essay,
who jvould.fail to recognise most of his descendants.
Bacon’s compact, laconic style suggests the kinship be-
tween the word ‘essay’ and the mineralogist’s word
‘assay’ ; for the handful of carefully-washed words which
come out in one of Bacon’s Essays puts one in mind of
the prospector sluicing away the grit until a few clear
specks of gold are left in the bottom of his pan. Bacon
brooded over some topic of social custom or behaviour
until he could reduce his conclusions upon it to an almost
aphoristic brevity. That is why he so often reads like a
string of mottoes and proverbs - except that he has the
Elizabethan power of illuminating a bare truth by a
brilliant image: when, for example, he likens the ill-
natured man ‘to the thorn or briar which prick or scratch
because they can do no other’.

The early English Essay made no bones about its
deliberate moral purpose. Many of Bacon’s are homilies
on conduct; and many of the divines who wrote Essays
in the seventeenth century were preoccupied with a
similar purpose: Jeremy Taylor, for example, one of
whose finest testimonies will be found in this selection.

A form so handy as the Essay - so short, so free from
literary convention - was bound to produce variants of
Bacon’s or Taylor’s manner. Thus during the seventeenth
century there developed a popular litera.ry exercise called
the * Character’ - a kind of still-life composite portrait of
various familiar 'types’ - the Undergraduate, the Poet,
the Yeoman, and so on. Few of those character-studies
would interest the modern reader, but they are worth
referring to here because they brought a new interest
into- Essay-writing, and set the fashion by which such
essayists as Addison, Steele and Goldsmith so often intro-
duced into their Essays fictional characters like Sir Roger
de Goverley or Beau Tibbs. '

The Eighteenlh-ceniury Essay

The eighteenth century produced a galaxy of essayists;
and here we should note a factor which so often deter-
mines the form literature shall take. Thus, the complex
shape of a Shakespearean play, with its alternating
intimate and crowd scenes,. was prescribed by the peculiar
architecture of the Elizabethan style — its balconies,
alcoves and platforms. In a similar way, the length and
tone of that spate of Essays which appeared in the
eighteenth century were determined by the swift con-
temporary development of the Press. It was the eighteenth-
century periodical and newspaper which made the
eighteenth-century Essay. By the end of that century
there were sixty daily or weekly papers published in "
London. Most of them supplemented the news with an
article of comment upon literature, manners or politics;
some of them, like the famous Spectator^ left the news to
others and concentrated upon the job of criticism. In
these periodicals, then, the Essay found a new scope;
and such masters as Addison and Steele gave the Essay
a new charter. Henceforth it was free to air any topic of
public interest; and as the Press developed into the many
forms we know today^ the Essay found many lengths and
many levels for its business of comment and criticism. In
our modern dailies, weeklies, monthlies or quarterlies wx
can find so many moods, themes, styles and sizes of the
Essay that we realise how broad any definition of that
form must be nowadays. ’ '

It is an agreeable exercise to compare the varieties of
the Essay during the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth
centuries. Addison, for instance: meticulous and elaborate*
His paragraphing is a model of precision, the balance
and antithesis of his sentences are as- carefully contrived
as a stonemason’s or a carpenter’s. Elis diction, again, is
as formal as the costume of his day: never relapsing into
a full-blooded colloquialism, never robust in its humour.
Yet his is a style to be analysed and respected - absorbed
and lorgotten - by anyone who wishes to master the
mechanics of good English. Goldsmith, too, can make
sentences as elegant and correct as a peruke, but his
favourite manner is more supple and coloured; and
although he is as willing as Adchson to comment on social
behaviour, he does it less pontifically, more humanely.
Addison does not hxceive’ until he is dressed and pow-
dered ; Goldsmith will talk to you in his dressing-gown,
HazHtt represents a more searching kind of Essay than
Addison or Goldsmith - the critical analysis of an exacting
literary theme - and in our own age he has his counterpart
in such a critic as Aldous Huxley. Lamb, again,, is the
sharpest possible contrast to HazHtt. His themes call for
no precise terms of definitions, not even for logic. Lamb
is involved always in a mood rather than a topic, and
what he writes is a kind of ode in prose. His ‘subject’ is
a pretext rather than an assignment. It moves him as* a
wind flutters the thousand bits of glass which hang from
the tidges of a Japanese temple; it sets him off on an
excursion as liable to land him into the fanciful as any-
where else. Yet anyone who examines an Essay of Lamb’s
will see that he is no mere bubble-blower. His fancy
and his responsiveness to moods are disciplined into a
pattern of progress and development.

Take, for example, In Praise of Chimney Sweepers. The
Essay begins with a panegyric to the ‘matin lark’ - the
young sweep. Immediately afterwards, Lamb is recalling
the thrill he felt as a boy when he saw a sweep’s brush
suddenly emerge from a chimney-top. The fifth paragraph
is a parenthetic exhortation to the reader to give a penny
to a sweep when he sees one. In the next paragraph, the
maze takes what seems an incomprehensible turn, for it
does nothing but describe a shop which sells sassafras
tea; but soon we discover that this is the favourite
beverage of sweeps. Then the Essay takes a fresh turn,
to mention those other stalls where the early workman
gets his herbal beer. The following paragraph comes back
to the sweep at the stall, where you are invited to stand
him a drink and a snack. There we come into a new
section of the maze, which begins most disconcertingly:
T am by nature extremely susceptible to street affronts’,
but which lead us on to consider the mischievous nature
of sweeps. No sooner do we feel our way along than we
come, across a fresh and startling line: T am by theory
obdurate to the seductiveness' of what are called a fine
set of teeth’, — but it directs us eventually to a considera-
tion of the possibility that many sweeps are mislaid
lordlings. We are led on to a pleasant story of one such
romance. On the heels of that, we are without warning
introduced to ‘my pleasant friend, Jem White’, who,
however, turns out to be a kind of patron saint of sweeps.
One of his annual feeds for them is next described ; and,
just afterwards, we emerge imexpectedly to find that,
Jem now dead, the sweeps lament his lost bounty.

From first to last the thread is there, and the shocks
we get as we fancy ourselves lost from time to time, serve
to heighten oui* pleasure at the constant return to the
central idea.

Further comparisons between the themes and methods
of ‘the English Essayists can be left for the reader to
explore for himself. When he has done so he may feel
capable of expanding the tentative definition with which
this Introduction began. Yet perhaps he will be disposed
to add no more than this ~ that throughout the manifold
variety of the English Essay there runs, in one form or
another, a sense of moral purpose: a zeal to edify and
clarify our thought upon a thousand different themes;
sometimes that purpose is boldly revealed, sometimes it
is camouflaged vfith humour or irony, sometimes it is so
implicit that it discloses itself to you only after a long
reflection. But it is consistent enough and clear enough
to leave no doubt that the English Essay is a ‘serious’
mode of literature, and that whether he is writing about
behaviour or books or science or politics the essayist is
out to edify rather than to entertain. And even when, in
fulfilling that intention, he manages also to be amusing,
the fact remains that he still conforms to the purpose
which Bacon was the first to practise.

With these few pointers in mind the reader is now
advised, before dipping into this selection, to turn first
to Maurice Hewlett’s The Maypole and the Column (on
page 212), for it is one of the best essays ever written
on the English Essay.

London: 1,9,42

W. E. Williams

シェイクスピア物語

高校の時に単語に悩まされたことを思い出しながら、読み始めました。

最初が《嵐》。次が《夏の夜の夢》

どうしてこの作品の単語がこんなんだったのか、不思議でなりません。 高校生ならスラスラ読める程度のものです。

もしかしたら、中学生3年の時に取り組んだのかもしれません。

英文学はシェイクスピアに始まってシェイクスピアで終わると、どこかで聞いた気がします。

随筆を加えれば、その通りだと思います。

中国語訳を参考にして、独習していきましょう。

附:以前ブログで莎·翁であるべきを 沙翁と誤っています。検索して訂正するのも億劫ですから、ホットケーキ。


(ネットで無料DL.、それを自宅で製本、いい時代になったものです)

シェイクスピア物語表紙

FC2Ad