Fair is foul, and foul is fair – Macbeth Act 1 SceneⅠ・・・きれいはきたない、きたないはきれい

やっぱり随筆 - 英語の楽しみ(苦しみ)





On National Prejudices

by Oliver Goldsmith (1730 – 1774)

As I am one of that sauntering tribe of mortals, who spend the greatest part of their time in taverns, coffee houses, and other places of public resort, I have thereby an opportunity of observing an infinite variety of characters, which, to a person of a contemplative turn, is a much higher entertainment than a view of all the curiosities of art or nature. In one of these, my late rambles, I accidentally fell into the company of half a dozen gentlemen, who were engaged in a warm dispute about some political affair; the decision of which, as they were equally divided in their sentiments, they thought proper to refer to me, which naturally drew me in for a share of the conversation.

Amongst a multiplicity of other topics, we took occasion to talk of the different characters of the several nations of Europe; when one of the gentlemen, cocking his hat, and assuming such an air of importance as if he had possessed all the merit of the English nation in his own person, declared that the Dutch were a parcel of avaricious wretches; the French a set of flattering sycophants; that the Germans were drunken sots, and beastly gluttons; and the Spaniards proud, haughty, and surly tyrants; but that in bravery, generosity, clemency, and in every other virtue, the English excelled all the world.

This very learned and judicious remark was received with a general smile of approbation by all the company--all, I mean, but your humble servant; who, endeavoring to keep my gravity as well as I could, I reclined my head upon my arm, continued for some times in a posture of affected thoughtfulness, as if I had been musing on something else, and did not seem to attend to the subject of conversation; hoping by these means to avoid the disagreeable necessity of explaining myself, and thereby depriving the gentlemen of his imaginary happiness.

But my pseudo-patriot had no mind to let me escape so easily. Not satisfied that his opinion should pass without contradiction, he was determined to have it ratified by the suffrage of every one in the company; for which purpose addressing himself to me with an air of inexpressible confidence, he asked me if I was not in the same way of thinking. As I am never forward in giving my opinion, especially when I have reason to believe that it will not be agreeable; so, when I am obliged to give it, I always hold it for a maxim to speak my real sentiments. I therefore told him that, for my own part, I should not have ventured to talk in such a peremptory strain, unless I had made the tour of Europe, and examined the manners of these several nations with great care and accuracy: that, perhaps, a more impartial judge would not scruple to affirm that the Dutch were more frugal and industrious, the French more temperate and polite, the Germans more hardy and patient of labour and fatigue, and the Spaniards more staid and sedate, than the English; who, though undoubtedly brave and generous, were at the same time rash, headstrong, and impetuous; too apt to be elated with prosperity, and to despond in adversity.

I could easily perceive that all of the company began to regard me with a jealous eye before I had finished my answer, which I had no sooner done, than the patriotic gentleman observed, with a contemptuous sneer, that he was greatly surprised how some people could have the conscience to live in a country which they did not love, and to enjoy the protection of a government, to which in their hearts they were inveterate enemies. Finding that by this modest declaration of my sentiments, I had forfeited the good opinion of my companions, and given them occasion to call my political principles in question, and well knowing that it was in vain to argue with men who were so very full of themselves, I threw down my reckoning and retired to my own lodgings, reflecting on the absurd and ridiculous nature of national prejudice and prepossession.

Among all the famous sayings of antiquity, there is none that does greater honour to the author, or affords greater pleasure to the reader (at least if he be a person of a generous and benevolent heart) than that of the philosopher, who, being asked what "countryman he was," replied that he was a citizen of the world. How few there are to be found in modern times who can say the same, or whose conduct is consistent with such a profession! We are now become so much Englishmen, Frenchmen, Dutchmen, Spaniards, or Germans, that we are no longer citizens of the world; so much the natives of one particular spot, or members of one petty society, that we no longer consider ourselves as the general inhabitants of the globe, or members of that grand society which comprehends the whole human kind.

Did these prejudices prevail only among the meanest and lowest of the people, perhaps they might be excused, as they have few, if any, opportunities of correcting them by reading, traveling, or conversing with foreigners; but the misfortune is, that they infect the minds, and influence the conduct even of our gentlemen; of those, I mean, who have every title to this appellation but an exemption from prejudice, which, however, in my opinion, ought to be regarded as the characteristical mark of a gentleman: for let a man's birth be ever so high, his station ever so exalted, or his fortune ever so large, yet if he is not free from national and other prejudices, I should make bold to tell him, that he had a low and vulgar mind, and had no just claim to the character of a gentleman.

And in fact, you will always find that those are most apt to boast of national merit, who have little or no merit of their own to depend on, than which, to be sure, nothing is more natural: the slender vine twists around the sturdy oak for no other reason in the world but because it has not strength sufficient to support itself.

Should it be alleged in defense of national prejudice, that it is the natural and necessary growth of love to our country, and that therefore the former cannot be destroyed without hurting the latter, I answer, that this is a gross fallacy and delusion. That it is the growth of love to our country, I will allow; but that it is the natural and necessary growth of it, I absolutely deny. Superstition and enthusiasm too are the growth of religion; but who ever took it in his head to affirm that they are the necessary growth of this noble principle? They are, if you will, the bastard sprouts of this heavenly plant; but not its natural and genuine branches, and may safely enough be lopped off, without doing any harm to the parent stock; nay, perhaps, till once they are lopped off, this goodly tree can never flourish in perfect health and vigour.

Is it not very possible that I may love my own country, without hating the natives of other countries? that I may exert the most heroic bravery, the most undaunted resolution, in defending its laws and liberty, without despising all the rest of the world as cowards and poltroons? Most certainly it is: and if it were not--But why need I suppose what is absolutely impossible?--but if it were not, I must own, I should prefer the title of the ancient philosopher, namely, a citizen of the world, to that of an Englishman, a Frenchman, a European, or to any other appellation whatever.


sauntering(d): to walk in an unhurried way 闲逛
tavern(d): old use a pub 小酒店
contemplative(e): denoting, concerned with, or inclined to contemplation; meditative (Collins) 熟思的,冥想的
multiplicity(e): a large number or great variety 大量;多样
avaricious(e): avarice: too great eagerness and desire to get or keep
wealth; GREED 贪心的;贪婪的
wretch(d): 1 a poor r unhappy person 2 a person or animal disliked and thought bad and useless 1不幸的人 2卑劣的人
sycophant(e): a person who tries too much to please those in positions of power, as to gain advantage for himself 谄媚者
sot(e): a habitual or chronic drunkard (Collins) 酒鬼
glutton(d): a person who eats too much 贪吃的人
haughty(d): (of people or their acts) appearing proud; showing that one thinks other less important than oneself 1傲慢的 2崇高的
surly(e): angry, bad mannered, etc. 心眼儿坏的
clemency(e): mercy, esp. when shown in making punishment less severe 仁慈
judicious(d): having or showing good judgment 有见识的
approbation(e): commendation; praise (Collins) 认可;称赞
pseudo-(e): 1 false, pretending, or unauthentic 2 having a close resemblance to 表示“伪,拟,假,赝”
suffrage(d): the right to vote 投票;投票权
peremptory(e): showing an expectation of being obeyed at once and without question; impolitely quick and unfriendly 断然的;专横的
strain(d): a way of using words 语气;笔调
scruple(d): a moral principle which keeps one from doing something wrong 良心的责备
hardy(d): (of people or animal) strong; able to bear cold, hard work, etc. 能吃苦的
staid(d): serious and dull by habit; unadventurous 固定的;认真的
sedate(d): not easily troubled; calm; quiet 沉着的;静肃的
headstrong(d)(of people) determined to do what one wants against all advice 倔强的;任性的
impetuous(d): showing swift action but lack of thought 激烈的;轻举妄动的
elated(e): filled with pride and joy  欢欣鼓舞的
despond(x): despondent(d): feeling a complete loss of hope and courage 垂头丧气的,心灰意懒的
adversity(d): (an example of) bad fortune; trouble 逆竟
inveterate(e): settled in a (bad) habit 根深蒂固的
forfeit(d): to have (something) taken away from one because some agreement or rule has been broken, or asa a punishment, or as a result of some action  丧失;失去
benevolent(d): having or showing a kind or harmless nature 仁爱的;善意的
appellation(d): an identifying name or title (Collins) 称呼
fallacy(d): false idea or belief; false reasoning, as an argument 谬误,错误
bastard(d):1 a child of unmarried parents 2 a person, esp. that one strongly dislikes 私生子;劣货;坏蛋
lop(e): to cut off; remove 伐,砍
vigour(d): forcefulness; strength shown in power of action 精力;气力
undaunted(d): not at all discouraged by danger or difficulty; bold 无畏的,刚毅的
poltroon(x): an abject or contemptible coward (Collins) 胆小鬼

1. 釈義は朗文英漢双解活用詞典(Longman Active Study English-Chinese Dictionary)に依る。不掲載語はCollinsで補った。
2. 中国語は英華大詞典(修訂第三版)に依る。
3. 語彙ランクは、ウィズダム英和辞典(第2版)に従った
    d  約8,000語
    e 約43,000語
    x     不掲載語