老いの一筆

Fair is foul, and foul is fair – Macbeth Act 1 SceneⅠ・・・きれいはきたない、きたないはきれい

英語の復習 第118回裏・第119回

第118回裏

ablution    unman    chronic    mendicant    ambush    nibble    facetious    whirl    dissonant    upbraid


‘What’s your name?’ he asked suddenly. I told him.
‘Mine’s Robert Morrison.’
‘Scotch?’
‘Glasgow. I’ve been in this blasted country for years. Got any baccy?’
I gave him my pouch and he filled his pipe. He lit it from a piece of burning charcoal.
‘I can’t stay any longer. I’ve stayed too long. Too long.’
He had an impulse to jump up again and walk up and down, but he resisted it, clinging to his chair. I saw on his face the effort he was making. I judged that his restlessness was due to chronic alcoholism. I find drunks very boring, and I made up my mind to take an early opportunity of slipping off to bed.
‘I’ve been managing some olive groves,’ he went on. ‘I’m here working for the Glasgow and South of Spain Olive Oil Company Limited.’
‘Oh, yes.’
‘We’ve got a new process for refining oil, you know. Properly treated, Spanish oil is every bit as good as Lucca. And we can sell it cheaper.’
He spoke in a dry, matter–of–fact, business–like way. He chose his words with Scotch precision. He seemed perfectly sober.
*baccy: Brit an informal name for tobacco
*grove: a small wooded area or plantation


‘Are you proposing to marry him?’ I asked.
‘I leave myself in his hands. I want to do nothing that he does not wish.’
She spoke with so much simplicity, there was something so touching in her self–surrender, that when she left me I no longer felt angry with her. Of course I thought her very foolish, but if the folly of men made one angry one would pass one’s life in a state of chronic ire. I thought all would come right. She said Gerry was romantic. He was, but the romantics in this workaday world only get away with their nonsense because they have at bottom a shrewd sense of reality: the mugs are the people who take their vapourings at their face value. The English are romantic; that is why other nations think them hypocritical;
they are not: they set out in all sincerity for the Kingdom of God, but the journey is arduous and they have reason to pick up any gilt–edged investment that offers itself by the way. The British soul, like Wellington’s armies, marches on its belly. I supposed that Gerry would go through a bad quarter of an hour when he received Margery’s letter. My sympathies were not deeply engaged in the matter and I was only curious to see how he would extricate himself from the pass he was in. I thought Margery would suffer a bitter disappointment; well, that would do her no great harm, and then she would go back to her husband and I had no doubt the pair of them, chastened, would live in peace, quiet, and happiness for the rest of their lives.


He left me and I still had no notion who he was or where I had met him. I had noticed one curious thing about him. Not once during the few sentences we exchanged, when we shook hands, or when with a nod he left me, did even the suspicion of a smile cross his face. Seeing him more closely I observed that he was in his way good–looking; his features were regular, his grey eyes were handsome, he had a slim figure; but it was a way that I found uninteresting. A silly woman would say he looked romantic. He reminded you of one of the knights of Burne–Jones though he was on a larger scale and there was no suggestion that he suffered from the chronic colitis that afflicted those unfortunate creatures. He was the sort of man whom you expected to look wonderful in fancy dress till you saw him in it and then you found that he looked absurd.
*colitis: (med) inflammation of the mucous membrane of the colon (OALD): inflammation of the colon (Collins)


You’ve never shown me your room, Betty,’ he said.
‘Haven’t I? Come in and have a look now. It’s rather nice.’
She turned back and he followed her in. It was over the drawing–room and nearly as large. It was furnished in the Italian style, and as is the present way more like a sitting–room than a bedroom. There were fine Paninis on the walls and one or two handsome cabinets. The bed was Venetian and beautifully painted.
‘That’s a couch of rather imposing dimensions for a widow lady,’ he said facetiously.
‘It is enormous, isn’t it? But it was so lovely, I had to buy it. It cost a fortune.’
His eye took in the bed–table by the side. There were two or three books on it, a box of cigarettes, and on an ash–tray a briar pipe. Funny! What on earth had Betty got a pipe by her bed for?
‘Do look at this cassone. Isn’t the painting marvellous? I almost cried when I found it.’
‘I suppose that cost a fortune too.’
‘I daren’t tell you what I paid.’
* cassone: a large Italian chest having a hinged lid and open decorated with carving or painting (WTID)


‘We shall be there in five minutes now.’
He put on his hat and took down from the racks the things the porter had put in them. He looked at her with shining eyes and his lips twitched. She saw that he was only just able to control his emotion. He looked out of the window, too, and they passed over brightly lighted thoroughfares, close packed with tram–cars, buses, and motor–vans, and they saw the streets thick with people. What a mob! The shops were all lit up. They saw the hawkers with their barrows at the kerb.
‘London,’ he said.
He took her hand and gently pressed it. His smile was so sweet that she had to say something. She tried to be facetious.
‘Does it make you feel all funny inside?’
‘I don’t know if I want to cry or if I want to be sick.’


‘I’m glad we had them,’ said the consul, dancing with Mrs Hamlyn. ‘I’m all for democracy, and I think they’re very sensible to keep themselves to themselves.’
But she noticed that Pryce was not to be seen, and when an opportunity presented asked one of the second–class passengers where he was.
‘Blind to the world,’ was the answer. ‘We put him to bed in the afternoon and locked him up in his cabin.’
The consul claimed her for another dance. He was very facetious. Suddenly Mrs Hamlyn felt that she could not bear it any more, the noise of the amateur band, the consul’s jokes, the gaiety of the dancers. She knew not why, but the merriment of those people passing on their ship through the night and the solitary sea affected her on a sudden with horror. When the consul released her she slipped away and, with a look to see that no one had noticed her, ascended the companion to the boat deck. Here everything was in darkness. She walked softly to a spot where she knew she would be safe from all intrusion.



第119回

1181  The quality or fact having comparatively little weight (SOD): tendency to treat serious matters without respect; lack of seriousness (OALD)
Hydrogen … rises in the air on account of its l□□□□y. (SOD)

1182  taking what fortune brings; carefree
She goes through in a h□□□y-go-l□□□y fashion.

1183  make known (sth secret)
d□□□□□e the source of one’s information

1184  a type of large pick that has one end of its blade shaped like adze, used for loosing soil, cutting roots, etc
m□□□□□k

1185  to approach and speak to; greet first, before being greeted; solicit
I was a□□□□ted by a begger/a prostitute

1186  draw away sb’s attention from sth
The noise in the street d□□□□□□ted me from my reading.

1187  child who stays away from school without good reason: wandering; idle
play t□□□□t from school
He is supposed to be at the meeting, but is playing t□□□□t.

1188  not severe (esp in punishing people); to soften, alleviate
l□□□□□t parents/judge
He tended to be l□□□□□t toward the children.

1189  hard, usu green stone, carved into ornaments, etc
a long string of imitation j□□e

1190  young insignificant person who intrudes upon people and behaves as he were important
w□□□□□r-s□□□□□r



英語の復習   第117回裏・第118回

第117回裏

adolescence   ogle   askance   jabber   nimble   filch   devilish   trough   chancellery   tinsel


The swing of his nature took him from extreme languor to devouring energy; and, as I knew well, he was never so truly formidable as when, for days on end, he had been lounging in his armchair amid his improvisations and his black-letter editions. Then it was that the lust of the chase would suddenly come upon him, and that his brilliant reasoning power would rise to the level of intuition, until those who were unacquainted with his methods would look askance at him as on a man whose knowledge was not that of other mortals. When I saw him that afternoon so enwrapped in the music at St. James's Hall I felt that an evil time might be coming upon those whom he had set himself to hunt down.


Your successes, your reputation, which you think would please them, as justifying their good opinion, are coldly received, and looked at askance, because they remove your dependence on them: if you are under a cloud, they do all they can to keep you there by their goodwill: they are so sensible of your gratitude that they wish your obligations never to cease, and take care you shall owe no one else a good turn; and provided you are compelled or contented to remain always in poverty, obscurity, and disgrace, they will continue your very good friends and humble servants to command, to the end of the chapter.


But yet he made shift to do on such wise that neither Bentivegna nor any of his neighbours suspected aught; and the better to gain Mistress Belcolore's goodwill, he made her presents from time to time, sending her whiles a clove of garlic, which he had the finest of all the countryside in a garden he tilled with his own hands, and otherwhiles a punnet of peascods or a bunch of chives or scallions, and whenas he saw his opportunity, he would ogle her askance and cast a friendly gibe at her; but she, putting on the prude, made a show of not observing it and passed on with a demure air; wherefore my lord priest could not come by his will of her.
*punnet: a small basket for fruit, such as strawberries
*chive: a small Eurasian purple-flowered alliaceous plant
*scallion: any of various onions or similar plants, such as the spring onion, that have a small bulb and long leaves and are eaten in salads. Also called green onion


I was a hypochondriac lad; and the sight of a boy in fetters, upon the day of my first putting on the blue clothes, was not exactly fitted to assuage the natural terrors of initiation. I was of tender years, barely turned of seven; and had only read of such things in books, or seen them but in dreams. I was told he had run away. This was the punishment for the first offence. — As a novice I was soon after taken to see the dungeons. These were little, square, Bedlam cells, where a boy could just lie at his length upon straw and a blanket — a mattress, I think, was afterwards substituted — with a peep of light, let in askance, from a prison-orifice at top, barely enough to read by. Here the poor boy was locked in by himself all day, without sight of any but the porter who brought him his bread and water — who might not speak to him; — or of the beadle, who came twice a week to call him out to receive his periodical chastisement, which was almost welcome, because it separated him for a brief interval from solitude:— and here he was shut up by himself of nights, out of the reach of any sound, to suffer whatever horrors the weak nerves, and superstition incident to his time of life, might subject him to. This was the penalty for the second offence. — Wouldst thou like, reader, to see what became of him in the next degree?
*hypochondria: chronic abnormal angxiety concerning the state of one’s health, even in the absence of any evidence of disease on medical examination
* dungeon: a close prison cell, often underground



第118回

1171  ceremonial washing of the hands or the body, esp as an act of religion
perform one’s a□□□□□□ns

1172  deprive of the qualities considered characteristic of a man
The news of his friend’s death u□□□□ned him for a while.

1173  (of a disease or condition) continual, lasting for a long time
c□□□□□c rheumatism

1174  getting a living by asking for alms, or as a begger
a m□□□□□□□t frier
m□□□□□□□t orders

1175  (the placing of) troops, etc, waiting to make a surprise attack
fall into an a□□□□h

1176  take tiny bites; (fig) show some inclination to accept (an offer); a small bite
fish n□□□□ing (at) the bait
I felt a n□□□□e at the bait.

1177  humorously teasing or mocking; fond of, marked by, inappropriate or bitter joking
a f□□□□□□us young man

1178  move quickly round and round
The wind w□□□led the dead leaves about

1179  not harmonious; harsh in tone
d□□□□□□nt and loud voices

1180  scold; reproach
The military tribunal u□□□□□ded the soldier for his cowardice.


英語の復習 第116回裏・第117回

第116回裏

caterpillar   impunity   bilge    relevant   effete   nincompoop   celerity   strut   discretion   rent/rend


He too much affected that dangerous figure — irony. He sowed doubtful speeches, and reaped plain, unequivocal hatred. — He would interrupt the gravest discussion with some light jest; and yet, perhaps, not quite irrelevant in ears that could understand it. Your long and much talkers hated him. The informal habit of his mind, joined to an inveterate impediment of speech, forbade him to be an orator; and he seemed determined that, no one else should play that part when he was present.


This may not explain the connection between eggs and Easter. But then neither does _The Encyclopedia Britannica_. I have looked up both the article on eggs and the article on Easter, and in neither of them can I find anything more relevant than such remarks as that "the eggs of the lizard are always white or yellowish, and generally soft-shelled; but the geckos and the green lizards lay hard-shelled eggs" or "Gregory of Tours relates that in 577 there was a doubt about Easter." In order to learn something about Easter eggs one has to turn to some such work as _The Dictionary of Phrase and Fable_, which tells us that "the practice of presenting eggs to our friends at Easter is Magian or Persian, and bears allusion to the mundane egg, for which Ormuzd and Ahriman were to contend till the consummation of all things." The advantage of reading _Tit-Bits_ is that one gets to know hundreds of things like that. The advantage of not reading _Tit-Bits_ is that one is so ignorant of them that a piece of information of this sort is as fresh and unexpected as the morning's news every Easter Monday. Next Easter, I feel sure, I shall look it up again. I shall have forgotten all about the mundane egg, even if Ormuzd and Ahriman have not. I shall be thinking more about my breakfast egg. What a piece of work is a man! And yet many profound things might be said about eggs, mundane or otherwise. I wish I could have thought of them.
*mundane: everyday; ordinary; or banal
*tid-bit: =titbit: 1 a tasty small piece of food; dainty 2 a pleasuring scrap of anything, such as scandal


"I am glad of all details," remarked my friend, "whether they seem to you to be relevant or not."


It is idle to talk to us of "the Greeks." The people we mean when so naming them were a few little communities, living under very peculiar conditions, and endowed by Nature with most exceptional characteristics. The sporadic civilization which we are too much in the habit of regarding as if it had been no less stable than brilliant, was a succession of the briefest splendours, gleaming here and there from the coasts of the Aegean to those of the western Mediterranean. Our heritage of Greek literature and art is priceless; the example of Greek life possesses for us not the slightest value. The Greeks had nothing alien to study--not even a foreign or a dead language. They read hardly at all, preferring to listen. They were a slave-holding people, much given to social amusement, and hardly knowing what we call industry. Their ignorance was vast, their wisdom a grace of the gods. Together with their fair intelligence, they had grave moral weaknesses. If we could see and speak with an average Athenian of the Periclean age, he would cause no little disappointment--there would be so much more of the barbarian in him, and at the same time of the decadent, than we had anticipated. More than possibly, even his physique would be a disillusion. Leave him in that old world, which is precious to the imagination of a few, but to the business and bosoms of the modern multitude irrelevant as Memphis or Babylon.
*sporadic: 1 occuring at irregular points in time; intermittent 2 scattered; isolated



第117回

1161  period of life between childfood and maturity; growth during this period; the quality of being youthful
a□□□□□□ence

1162  look at (suggesting lust or longing)
o□□ing all the pretty girls

1163  look at with suspicion: with a side glance
He looked a□□□□□e at my offer.
The kids were eyeing him a□□□□□e.

1164  talk excitedly; talk in what seems to be a rapid and confused manner
j□□□□r (out) one’s prayers
have a j□□□□r with

1165  quick-moving; (of the mind) sharp; quick to understand
as n□□□□e as a goat
a n□□□□e mind

1166  pilfer; steal (sth of small value)
a cat f□□□hing a piece of fish
f□□□h ashtrays from fancy restaurants

1167  wicked;cruel: (colloq) extreme
a d□□□□□□h plot
d□□□□□□h hot

1168  long, open (usu shallow) box for animals to feed or drink from ;(in the sea, etc) long hollow between two waves
The bows crushed down into the t□□□□h.

1169  chancellor’s position, department or residence
c□□□□□□lery

1170  glittering metalic substance made in sheets, strips and threads: having sham splendor
trim a Christmas tree with t□□□□l


OALDの中のguava

guava : (topical tree with) pink edible fruit surrounded by a light yellow outer skin

topical treeって何なんだ?

revised版でもこんな間違いが残っている。

rを落としても、topicalという語があるから、見過ごし逃したのだろう。

無論 tropical である。今日の英語の復習、第115回裏はtropical にしてある。

権威にケチをつけることは天邪鬼の密かな楽しみである。

付1: Revised and updated 1984
付2: Color Oxfordにきれいな写真が載っています。偉大なるかなColor Oxford!

英語の復習   第115回裏・第116回

第115回裏

shimmer   neurotic  dissemble  intrepid   ransack  eye-opener  plume  dole  entrance  scabbard


Captain Brunot was a Breton, and had been in the French Navy. He left it on his marriage, and settled down on a small property he had near Quimper to live for the rest of his days in peace; but the failure of an attorney left him suddenly penniless, and neither he nor his wife was willing to live in penury where they had enjoyed consideration. During his sea faring days he had cruised the South Seas, and he determined now to seek his fortune there. He spent some months in Papeete to make his plans and gain experience; then, on money borrowed from a friend in France, he bought an island in the Paumotus. It was a ring of land round a deep lagoon, uninhabited, and covered only with scrub and wild guava. With the intrepid woman who was his wife, and a few natives, he landed there, and set about building a house, and clearing the scrub so that he could plant cocoa-nuts. That was twenty years before, and now what had been a barren island was a garden.
*consideration: estimation; esteem
*guava: (tropical tree with) pink edible fruit surrounded by a light yellow outer skin


Enough: my soul, turn from them, and let me try to regain the obscurity and quiet that I love, 'far from the madding strife,' in some sequestered corner of my own, or in some far-distant land! In the latter case, I might carry with me as a consolation the passage in Bolinbroke's _Reflections on Exile,_ in which he describes in glowing colours the resources which a man may always find within himself, and of which the world cannot deprive him:-- 'Believe me, the providence of God has established such an order in the world, that of all which belongs to us the least valuable parts can alone fall under the will of others. Whatever is best is safest; lies out of the reach of human power; can neither be given nor taken away. Such is this great and beautiful work of nature, the world. Such is the mind of man, which contemplates and admires the world, whereof it makes the noblest part. These are inseparably ours, and as long as we remain in one we shall enjoy the other. Let us march therefore intrepidly wherever we are led by the course of human accidents. Wherever they lead us, on what coast soever we are thrown by them, we shall not find ourselves absolutely strangers. We shall feel the same revolution of seasons, and the same sun and moon will guide the course of our year. The same azure vault, bespangled with stars, will be everywhere spread over our heads. There is no part of the world from whence we may not admire those planets which roll, like ours, in different orbits round the same central sun; from whence we may not discover an object still more stupendous, that army of fixed stars hung up in the immense space of the universe, innumerable suns whose beams enlighten and cherish the unknown worlds which roll around them: and whilst I am ravished by such contemplations as these, whilst my soul is thus raised up to heaven, it imports me little what ground I read-upon.'
*sequester: to retire into seclusion
*bespangle: to cover or adorn with or as if with spangles


There is another branch of this character, which is the trifling or dilatory character. Such persons are always creating difficulties, and unable or unwilling to remove them. They cannot brush aside a cobweb, and are stopped by an insect's wing. Their character is imbecility, rather than effeminacy. The want of energy and resolution in the persons last described arises from the habitual and inveterate predominance of other feelings and motives; in these it is a mere want of energy and resolution, that is, an inherent natural defect of vigour of nerve and voluntary power. There is a specific levity about such persons, so that you cannot propel them to any object, or give them a decided _momentum_ in any direction or pursuit. They turn back, as it were, on the occasion that should project them forward with manly force and vehemence. They shrink from intrepidity of purpose, and are alarmed at the idea of attaining their end too soon. They will not act with steadiness or spirit, either for themselves or you. If you chalk out a line of conduct for them, or commission them to execute a certain task, they are sure to conjure up some insignificant objection or fanciful impediment in the way, and are withheld from striking an effectual blow by mere feebleness of character. They may be officious, good-natured, friendly, generous in disposition, but they are of no use to any one.
*inveterate: long established, esp so as to be deep-rooted or ingrained
*momentum: 1 physics the product of a body’s mass and its verocity 2 the impetus of a body resulting from its motion 3 driving power or strength




第116回

1151  larva of a butterfly or moth; endless belt passing over toothed wheels
c□□□□□□llar tractor

1152  freedom from punishment
with great i□□□□□□y

1153  almost flat part of a ship’s bottom, inside or outside; the dirty water that collects in a ship’s bottom
b□□□e

1154  connected with what is happening, being discussed, done, etc
have all the r□□□□□□t documents ready
Her personal history is r□□□□□□t to her novels.

1155  exhausted; weak and worn out
e□□□□e civilizations/empires

1156  foolish, weak-minded person; simpleton
compellled to veto for dummies and n□□□□□□oops - G.B.Show (WTID)

1157  quickness; swiftness
act with c□□□□□□y

1158  piece of wood or metal inserted in a frame work; brace; prop
s□□□t

1159  being discreet; prudence; freedom to act according to one’s own judgment
Use your d□□□□□□ion.
It is within in your own d□□□□□□ion.

1160  penetrate; tear or pull violently
a country r□□t (in two) by civil war.
a racial problem which is r□□ding the nation

英語の復習   第114回裏・第115回

第114回裏

foundry    pore    aversion    relentless    expulsion  contrivance    parsonage    lapse   broomstick    vestibule


It was not till after dinner that he spoke. During the simple meal he had exerted himself to be his usual gay self, but the exertion was apparent. The rain had ceased and the night was starry. They sat on the veranda. In order not to attract insects they had put out the lamp in the sitting–room. At their feet, with a mighty, formidable sluggishness, silent, mysterious, and fatal, flowed the river. It had the terrible deliberation and the relentlessness of destiny.
‘Doris, I’ve got something to say to you,’ he said suddenly.
His voice was very strange. Was it her fancy that he had difficulty in keeping it quite steady? She felt a little pang in her heart because he was in distress, and she put her hand gently into his. He drew it away.
‘It’s rather a long story. I’m afraid it’s not a very nice one and I find it rather difficult to tell. I’m going to ask you not to interrupt me, or to say anything, till I’ve finished.’


The whole atmosphere oppressed him so that he felt powerless; some hidden influence surrounded James, sucking from his blood, as it were, all manliness, dulling his brain. He became a mere puppet, acting in accordance to principles that were not his own, automatic, will-less. His father sat, as ever, in the dining-room by the fire, for only in the warmest weather could he do without artificial heat, and he read the paper, sometimes aloud, making little comments. His mother, at the table, on a stiff-backed chair, was knitting--everlastingly knitting. Outwardly there was in them a placid content, and a gentleness which made them seem pliant as wax; but really they were iron. James knew at last how pitiless was their love, how inhumanly cruel their intolerance; and of the two his father seemed more implacable, more horribly relentless. His mother's anger was bearable, but the Colonel's very weakness was a deadly weapon. His despair, his dumb sorrow, his entire dependence on the forbearance of others, were more tyrannical than the most despotic power. James was indeed a bird beating himself against the imprisoning cage; and its bars were loving-kindness and trust, tears, silent distress, bitter disillusion, and old age.
*pliant: easily modified; adaptable; flexible


Brief and powerless is Man's life; on him and all his race the slow, sure doom falls pitiless and dark. Blind to good and evil, reckless of destruction, omnipotent matter rolls on its relentless way; for Man, condemned to-day to lose his dearest, to-morrow himself to pass through the gate of darkness, it remains only to cherish, ere yet the blow falls, the lofty thoughts that ennoble his little day; disdaining the coward terrors of the slave of Fate, to worship at the shrine that his own hands have built; undismayed by the empire of chance, to preserve a mind free from the wanton tyranny that rules his outward life; proudly defiant of the irresistible forces that tolerate, for a moment, his knowledge and his condemnation, to sustain alone, a weary but unyielding Atlas, the world that his own ideals have fashioned despite the trampling march of unconscious power.
*trample: to stamp or walk roughly

 

第115回

1141  (shine with a) wavering soft or faint light
moonlight s□□□□□ring on the lake
The street lights s□□□□□red.

1142  of abnormal sensitivity; obsessed
He was now unbalanced and n□□□□□□c.

1143  speak, behave, so as to hide one’s real feelings, thoughts, plans, etc, or give a wrong idea of them
to d□□□□□□le one’s motions

1144  without fear; fearless of the consequences
an i□□□□□□d explorer

1145  search (a place) thoroughly for (sth) (OALD)
r□□□□□k a dictionary to find just the right word
r□□□□□k one’s memory for fogetting things

1146  circumstance, etc that brings enlightment and surprise (OALD)
e□e-o□□□□r

1147  feather, esp a large one used as a decoration: sth suggesting a feather by its shape
the brillant p□□□e of a peacock
a p□□□e of cloud

1148  distribute food, money, etc in small amount; sorrow
the unemployment d□□e
He is on the d□□e.

1149  fill with emotion and delight
e□□□□□□ed with the music
She stood e□□□□□□ed at the sight.

1150  sheath for the blade or sward
a sward s□□□□□□d
The sward is still in the s□□□□□□d.

英語の復習   第113回裏・第114回

第113回裏

sterile    attire    flippant    scurvy    crisscross    turret    deplore    iniquitous    vervain;verbena    stub


Perhaps the bullet that killed Theodore Winthrop deprived us of our great novelist of the Civil War, for he was on the right road. In a general speculation such a might-have-been is not altogether futile; if Milton had died of whooping cough there would not have been any "Paradise Lost"; the reverse of this is that some geniuses whose works ought inevitably to have been produced by this or that national development may have died too soon. This suggestion, however, need not be gravely argued. The fact is that the American literary imagination after the Civil War was almost sterile. If no books had been written, the failure of that conflict to get itself embodied in some masterpieces would be less disconcerting. But thousands of books were written by people who knew the war at first hand and who had literary ambition and some skill, and from all these books none rises to distinction.
*whoop: (med)to cough convulsively with a crowing sound made at each inspiration


If they describe kings and queens, it is an Eastern pageant. The Coronation at either House is nothing to it. We get at four repeated images--a curtain, a throne, a sceptre, and a footstool. These are with them the wardrobe of a lofty imagination; and they turn their servile strains to servile uses. Do we read a description of pictures? It is not a reflection of tones and hues which 'nature's own sweet and cunning hand laid on,' but piles of precious stones, rubies, pearls, emeralds, Golconda's mines, and all the blazonry of art. Such persons are in fact besotted with words, and their brains are turned with the glittering but empty and sterile phantoms of things. Personifications, capital letters, seas of sunbeams, visions of glory, shining inscriptions, the figures of a transparency, Britannia with her shield, or Hope leaning on an anchor, make up their stock-in-trade. They may be considered as _hieroglyphical_ writers. Images stand out in their minds isolated and important merely in themselves, without any groundwork of feeling—there is no context in their imaginations.
*blazonry: colourful or ostentatious display
*personification: the attribution of human characteristics to things, abstract ideas, etc, as for literary or artistic effect
*hieroglyphical: of or relating to a form of writing using picture symbols, esp as used in ancient Egypt


Sighs grew more worried every month; he could not get the thought out of his head that Mr. Perkins would ask him to fix a day for his marriage; and he hated the attitude the head adopted towards classical literature. There was no doubt that he was a fine scholar, and he was engaged on a work which was quite in the right tradition: he was writing a treatise on the trees in Latin literature; but he talked of it flippantly, as though it were a pastime of no great importance, like billiards, which engaged his leisure but was not to be considered with seriousness.


At length the day came on which Miss Wilkinson was to go, and she came down to breakfast, pale and subdued, in a serviceable travelling dress of black and white check. She looked a very competent governess. Philip was silent too, for he did not quite know what to say that would fit the circumstance; and he was terribly afraid that, if he said something flippant, Miss Wilkinson would break down before his uncle and make a scene. They had said their last good-bye to one another in the garden the night before, and Philip was relieved that there was now no opportunity for them to be alone. He remained in the dining-room after breakfast in case Miss Wilkinson should insist on kissing him on the stairs.


The maid, having greatly commended her mistress for this her humanity, went and opening to Rinaldo, brought him in; whereupon the lady, seeing him well nigh palsied with cold, said to him, 'Quick, good man, enter this bath, which is yet warm.' Rinaldo, without awaiting farther invitation, gladly obeyed and was so recomforted with the warmth of the bath that himseemed he was come back from death to life. The lady let fetch him a suit of clothes that had pertained to her husband, then lately dead, which when he had donned, they seemed made to his measure, and whilst awaiting what she should command him, he fell to thanking God and St. Julian for that they had delivered him from the scurvy night he had in prospect and had, as he deemed, brought him to good harbourage.
*palsy: to paralyse


But presently, it seeming to Catella time to vent the resentment she felt, she began, all afire with rage and despite, to speak thus, 'Alas, how wretched is women's lot and how ill bestowed the love that many of them bear their husbands! I, unhappy that I am, these eight years have I loved thee more than my life, and thou, as I have felt, art all afire and all consumed with love of a strange woman, wicked and perverse man that thou art! Now with whom thinkest thou to have been? Thou hast been with her whom thou hast too long beguiled with thy false blandishments, making a show of love to her and being enamoured elsewhere. I am Catella, not Ricciardo's wife, disloyal traitor that thou art! Hearken if thou know my voice; it is indeed I; and it seemeth to me a thousand years till we be in the light, so I may shame thee as thou deservest, scurvy discredited cur that thou art! Alack, woe is me! To whom have I borne so much love these many years? To this disloyal dog, who, thinking to have a strange woman in his arms, hath lavished on me more caresses and more fondnesses in this little while I have been here with him than in all the rest of the time I have been his. Thou hast been brisk enough to-day, renegade cur that thou art, that usest at home to show thyself so feeble and forspent and impotent; but, praised be God, thou hast tilled thine own field and not, as thou thoughtest, that of another. . No wonder thou camest not anigh me yesternight; thou lookedst to discharge thee of thy lading elsewhere and wouldst fain come fresh to the battle; but, thanks to God and my own foresight, the stream hath e'en run in its due channel. Why answerest thou not, wicked man? Why sayst thou not somewhat? Art thou grown dumb, hearing me? Cock's faith, I know not what hindereth me from thrusting my hands into thine eyes and tearing them out for thee. Thou thoughtest to do this treason very secretly; but, perdie, one knoweth as much as another; thou hast not availed to compass thine end; I have had better beagles at thy heels than thou thoughtest.'
*afire: 1 on fire; ablaze 2 intensely interested or passionate
*blandishments: (rarely singular) flattery intended to coax or cajole
*renegade: a person who deserts his cause or faith for another; apostate; traitor
*anigh: archaic NIGH 1: near in place, time, or relationship 2: NEARLY, ALMOST (WTID)
*perdie: var of PARDIE: of, relating to, resembling, or spotted like a leopard (WTID)



第114回

1131 place where metal or glass is melted and moulded
a type f□□□□□y

1132  meditate or ponder intently
He p□□ed over the strange events of the preceding evening.

1133  strong dislike; sth or sb disliked
He has a strong a□□□□□□n to getting up early.
Do you feel any a□□□□□□n to hard study?

1134  without pity; unyieldingly severe or harsh
r□□□□□□ess persecution
r□□□□□□ess hatred

1135  expelling or being expelled
an e□□□□□□on order
the e□□□□□□on of a student from college

1136  act or manner of inventing; capacity to invent
the c□□□□□□ance by which botanists fertilize flowers to obtain hybrids.
Some things are beyond human c□□□□□□ance.

1137  priest’s house
p□□□□□□ge

1138  slight error in speech or behaviour; slip of the memory, tongue or pen: (of time) passing away
a momentary l□□□e
meet again after a l□□□e of years

1139  handle of a broom (on which witches were said to ride through the air)
b□□□□□□ick

1140  lobby or entrance hall to a building: porch of a church
v□□□□□□le


辞書 対 Wikipedia  vervain

英語の復習 今日、第113回に出たvervain を常用のCollinsの他、しばらく開いていないWTIDで見てみた。

以下はこの回の写しである。

kinds of herbaceous plant of which garden varieties have flowers of many colours (OALD)

any of several verbenaceous plants of the genus Verbena, having square stems and long slender spikes of purple, blue, or white flowers (Collins)

1 Rom.Antiq. In pl., the leaves or twigs of certain plants or shrubs (as olive, myrtle, laurel, etc.) having a sacred character and employed in religious ceremonies 2 The plant VERVAIN; also, one or other plant of the genus Verbena (SOD)

1 Cap : a genus (the type of the family Verbenaceae) of chiefly American herbs or subshrubs having bracted flowers in heads or spikes, a regular corolla with a 5-lobed limb, and four one-seeded nutlets 2 –s a: VERVAIN 1; esp: any of numerous garden plants of hybrid origin but treated as a hybrid species (Verbena X hybrida ) that are widely cultivated usu. as annuals, for their showy spikes of white, pink, red, or blue flowers which are borne in profusion over a long season – see BLUE VERVAIN  b : any of various plants felt to resemble verbenas – usu. used in combination; see LEMON VERBENA, SAND VERBENA 3 or verbena violet –s : a pale violet to pale purple – called also vervain (WTID)

難しい言葉で詳しく説明されればされるほど、分からなくなってくる。

そこで、ご存知、Wikipedia。

ここの単語も難しい(学術用語満載)が、カラー図解があるためイメージが湧く。

花の名、鳥の名、虫の名、やはり名詞は言葉でない、絵だ、百科事典だ。

古人曰く、「百読は一見に如かず」と。

英語の復習 第112回裏・第113回

第112回裏

perdurable   fowl  atone   dowdy   dishevel  precipitate  effeminate  scullery  half-caste   grit


Insensibly and inevitably I had become an evolutionist, albeit never wholly satisfied with natural selection as the only and sufficient explanation of the change in the forms of life. And again, insensibly and inevitably, the new doctrine has led to modifications of the old religious ideas and eventually to a new and simplified philosophy of life. A good enough one so far as this life is concerned, but unhappily it takes no account of another, a second and perdurable life without change of personality.


‘I always think one should make a hearty meal before starting out on a journey,’ she said. We saw them off, and I drove Mrs Tower back to her house.
‘How long do you give it?’ she said. ‘Six months?’
‘Let’s hope for the best,’ I smiled.
‘Don’t be so absurd. There can be no “best”. You don’t think he’s marrying her for anything but her money, do you? Of course it can’t last. My only hope is that she won’t have to go through as much suffering as she deserves.’
I laughed. The charitable words were spoken in such a tone as to leave me in small doubt of Mrs Tower’s meaning.
‘Well, if it doesn’t last you’ll have the consolation of saying: “I told you so”,’I said.
‘I promise you I’ll never do that.’
‘Then you’ll have the satisfaction of congratulating yourself on your
self–control in not saying: “I told you so”.’
‘She’s old and dowdy and dull.’
‘Are you sure she’s dull?’ I said. ‘It’s true she doesn’t say very much, but when she says anything it’s very much to the point.’
‘I’ve never heard her make a joke in my life.’


When Jane wrote and told me they were back from their honeymoon I thought I must ask them both to dinner. I didn’t much like the idea, but I felt it had to be done. I knew the party would be deadly and I wasn’t going to sacrifice any of the people who really mattered. On the other hand I didn’t want Jane to think I hadn’t any nice friends. You know I never have more than eight, but on this occasion I thought it would make things go better if I had twelve. I’d been too busy to see Jane until the evening of the party. She kept us all waiting a little–that was Gilbert’s cleverness–and at last she sailed in. You could have knocked me down with a feather. She made the rest of the women look dowdy and provincial. She made me feel like a painted old trollop.
*sail: to move fast or effortlessly; to move along smoothly



第113回

1121  not producing, not able to produce, seeds or offspring: having no result
a s□□□□□e cow
a s□□□□□e discussion

1122  dress
in holiday a□□□□e
be gorgeously a□□□□ed

1123  not showing deserved respect or seriousness
a f□□□□□□t answer
Her conversation, however light, was never f□□□□□□t.

1124  diseased state of blood: dishonorable; contemptuous
That was a s□□□□y trick to play on an old lady.

1125  with crossed lines; crosswise; move crosswise
a c□□□□□□oss pattern/design

1126  small tower, esp at a corner of a building or a defensive wall: steel structure protecting gunners
armed with twin-gun t□□□□ts

1127 show, say, that one is filled with sorrow or regret for; condemn
d□□□□□e the present state of morality

1128  very wicked or unjust
an i□□□□□□ous system/regime

1129  kinds of herbaceous plant of which garden varieties have flowers of many colours (OALD):
any of several verbenaceous plants of the genus Verbena, having square stems and long slender spikes of purple, blue, or white flowers (Collins)
1 Rom.Antiq. In pl., the leaves or twigs of certain plants or shrubs (as olive, myrtle, laurel, etc.) having a sacred character and employed in religious ceremonies 2 The plant VERVAIN; also, one or other plant of the genus Verbena (SOD)
1 Cap : a genus (the type of the family Verbenaceae) of chiefly American herbs or subshrubs having bracted flowers in heads or spikes, a regular corolla with a 5-lobed limb, and four one-seeded nutlets 2 –s a: VERVAIN 1; esp: any of numerous garden plants of hybrid origin but treated as a hybrid species (Verbena X hybrida ) that are widely cultivated usu. as annuals, for their showy spikes of white, pink, red, or blue flowers which are borne in profusion over a long season – see BLUE VERVAIN  b : any of various plants felt to resemble verbenas – usu. used in combination; see LEMON VERBENA, SAND VERBENA 3 or verbena violet –s : a pale violet to pale purple – called also vervain (WTID)
he wore upon his head a chaplet of v□□□□□n (v□□□□□a) leaves

1130 short remaining end of a pencil, cigarette or similar object: short projecting part
The dog has only a s□□b of a tail.
the s□□b of a front teeth


英語の復習 第111回裏・第112回

第111回裏

romp   expletive  vassal   aigrette  chrysoprase  engross brag  entail  point-blank  exquisite


The affair seemed to grow more complicated, and the Colonel, with his expletives and his indignation, confused rather than informed me. I was glad that, catching sight of the clock at the Army and Navy Stores, he remembered an engagement to play cards at his club, and so left me to cut across St. James Park.


Presently, after moving, he leaned back and gazed with a curious abstraction at his antagonist. This was a fat, bearded Frenchman. The Frenchman considered the position, then broke suddenly into jovial expletives, and with an impatient gesture, gathering up the pieces, flung them into their box. He cursed Strickland freely, then, calling for the waiter, paid for the drinks, and left. Stroeve drew his chair closer to the table.


I once heard a person quaintly ask another, How many trees there are in St. Paul's churchyard? The question itself indicates that many cannot answer it; and this is found to be the case with those who have passed the church a hundred times: whilst the cause is, that every individual in the busy stream which glides past St. Paul's is engrossed in various other interests.


Then unto me there did himself present
  A youngling proud and haught,
Renowning him for valorous and gent;
  He took and holds me and with erring thought
To jealousy is bent;
  Whence I, alack! nigh to despair am wrought,
  As knowing myself,--brought
   Into this world for good
    Of many an one,--engrossed of one sole mate.
        DECAMERON - THE TENTH STORY [Day the Third]


He did not see Mildred again till Friday; he was sick for a sight of her by then; but when she came and he realised that he had gone out of her thoughts entirely, for they were engrossed in Griffiths, he suddenly hated her. He saw now why she and Griffiths loved one another, Griffiths was stupid, oh so stupid! he had known that all along, but had shut his eyes to it, stupid and empty-headed: that charm of his concealed an utter selfishness; he was willing to sacrifice anyone to his appetites. And how inane was the life he led, lounging about bars and drinking in music halls, wandering from one light amour to another! He never read a book, he was blind to everything that was not frivolous and vulgar; he had never a thought that was fine: the word most common on his lips was smart; that was his highest praise for man or woman. Smart! It was no wonder he pleased Mildred. They suited one another.


第112回

1111  permanent; everlasting; imperishable; extremely durable or lasting
Leaving a name p□□□□□□ble on earth – Southery (SOD)

1112  any bird; one of the larger birds; domestic hen cock or hen
the f□□ls of the air
water f□□l

1113  to make amends or reparation
How can I a□□□e for hurting your feelings?

1114  (of clothes, etc) shabby or unfashionable clothes
a d□□□y apartment

1115  with the hair uncombed; (of the hair and clothes) in disorder; untidy
d□□□□□□led apperance
like the fair flower d□□□□□□led in the wind – William Cowper (WTID)

1116  throw or send (sb or sth) violently from a height: cause (an event) to happen suddenly, quickly
events that p□□□□□□tated his ruin
in dismay he p□□□□□□tated himself once more upon his task - Eric Biom (WTID)

1117  to make womanish; having the qualities generally attributed to woman; unmanly
In Britain, it is still considered rather e□□□□□□ate for a man to put up his umbrella when it is raining.

1118  room usu in a large house next to the kichen, where dishes, pots, etc are washed up
s□□□□□□y

1119  a person whose parents are of different races
h□□f-c□□□e

1120  tiny, hard bits of stone, sand, etc; quality of courage and endurance
a man of the true g□□t




英語の復習   第110回裏・第111回

第110回裏

threadbare    jaunty    prostrate    dismay    negard/niggard    paternoster    devout    moat    batman    able-bodied


That is, we are left quite in the dark as to the feelings of pleasure or pain to be derived from the genius of the performance or the manner in which it appeals to the imagination: we know to a nicety how it squares with the threadbare rules of composition, not in the least how it affects the principles of taste. We know everything about the work, and nothing of it.


If some of us, whose 'ambition is more lowly,' pry a little too narrowly into nooks and corners to pick up a number of 'unconsidered trifles,' they never once direct their eyes or lift their hands to seize on any but the most gorgeous, tarnished, threadbare, patchwork set of phrases, the left-off finery of poetic extravagance, transmitted down through successive generations of barren pretenders. If they criticise actors and actresses, a huddled phantasmagoria of feathers, spangles, floods of light, and oceans of sound float before their morbid sense, which they paint in the style of Ancient Pistol.
*phantasmagoria: psychol a shifting medley of real or imagined figures, as in a dream


This is to me a pleasing extension of one's personal identity. Your name so repeated leaves an echo like music on the ear: it stirs the blood like the sound of a trumpet. It shows that other people are curious to see you; that they think of you, and feel an interest in you without your knowing it. This is a bolster to lean upon; a lining to your poor, shivering, threadbare opinion of yourself. You want some such cordial to exhausted spirits, and relief to the dreariness of abstract speculation.
*bolster: any pad or padded support


You women go falling enamoured of young springalds and covet their love, for that you see them somewhat fresher of colour and blacker of beard and they go erect and jaunty and dance and joust, all which things they have had who are somewhat more in years, ay, and these know that which those have yet to learn. Moreover, you hold them better cavaliers and deem that they fare more miles in a day than men of riper age.
*springald: a young man, a youth, a stripling (SOD)
*joust: 1 a combat between two mounted knights tilting against each other with lances 2 to encounter or engage in such a tournament


‘Anyhow Espinel wants to see me,’ he said.
‘What about?’
‘I don’t know. I’ll tell him you can’t give the show more than once a night and see what he says. Will you wait here?’
‘No, I’ll go along to the dressing–room.’
Ten minutes later he found her there. He was in great spirits and his step was jaunty. He burst open the door.
‘I’ve got grand news for you, honey. They’re keeping us on next month at twice the money.’
He sprang forward to take her in his arms and kiss her, but she pushed him away.
‘Have I got to go on again tonight?’
‘I’m afraid you must. I tried to make it only one show a night, but he wouldn’t hear of it. He says it’s quite essential you should do the supper turn. And after all, for double the money, it’s worth it.’



第111回

1101  play about, esp running, jumping and being rather rough, quick and effortless pace; an easy, winning gait in a race
r□□p on the beach
The work was easy, and he went through it in a r□□p.

1102  used to fill out a sentence, line, etc; violent (often meaningless) exclamation
E□□□□□□ve remarks paddles the speech.

1103  feudal tenant; subject
a great v□□□□l
He became a v□□□□l to his fears.

1104  tuft of feathers worn as an ornament on the head
a big scarlet three-cornered hat surmounted by an immense a□□□□□□e of scarlet plumes

1105  an apple-green variety of chalcedony; a gemstone
Crisopassus(c□□□□□□rase) is .. hyd in lyghte and seen in derkness TREVIS (SOD)

1106  (usu passive) take up all the time or attention of
e□□□□□sed in his work
I was e□□□□□sed with other matters.

1107  boast of what one had done
br□g of one's skill
He br□gged that he had won.

1108  make necessary; impose (expence, etc on sb)
That will e□□□□l an early start.
Success e□□□□ls hard work.

1109  (of a shot) aimed, fired, at very close range: straightforward
fired at p□□□t-b□□□k range
a p□□□t-b□□□k question

1110  of great excellence; brought to high state of perfection: keen; delicate
e□□□□□□te workmanship
e□□□□□□te sensibility


メリー

生後8か月のメリーとそれから12年過ぎた今のメリー。

老けたのは私だけではない。


(2016年7月23日 愛と)


(2004年12月1日 リッキーと)
041201.jpg

英語の復習   第109回裏・第110回

第109回裏

discompose    tiffin    extort    frown    implicit    plover   hog   alianate    concierge    levee


Thieves, as a last donation, leave advice to their friends, physicians a nostrum, authors a manuscript work, rakes a confession of their faith in the virtue of the sex--all, the last drivellings of their egotism and impertinence. One might suppose that if anything could, the approach and contemplation of death might bring men to a sense of reason and self-knowledge. On the contrary, it seems only to deprive them of the little wit they had, and to make them even more the sport of their wilfulness and shortsightedness. Some men think that because they are going to be hanged, they are fully authorised to declare a future state  of rewards and punishments. All either indulge their caprices or cling to their prejudices. They make a desperate attempt to escape from reflection by taking hold of any whim or fancy that crosses their minds, or by throwing themselves implicitly on old habits and attachments.
* nostrum: a patent or quack medicine


The two chief points which Sir Joshua aims at in his _Discourses_ are to show that excellence in the Fine Arts is the result of pains and study rather than of genius, and that all beauty, grace, and grandeur are to be found, not in actual nature, but in an idea existing in the mind. On both these points he appears to have fallen into considerable inconsistencies or very great latitude of expression, so as to make it difficult to know what conclusion to draw from his various reasonings. I shall attempt little more in this Essay than to bring together several passages that, from their contradictory import, seem to imply some radical defect in Sir Joshua's theory, and a doubt as to the possibility of placing an implicit reliance on his authority.
* latitude: scope for freedom of action, thought, etc; freedom from restriction


The passage, then, which the gentleman here throws down as an effectual bar to all change, to all innovation, to all improvement, contains at every step a refutation of his favourite creed. He is not 'prepared to sacrifice or to hazard the fruit of centuries of experience, of centuries of struggles, and of one century of liberty, for visionary schemes of ideal perfectibility.' So here are centuries of experience and centuries of struggles to arrive at one century of liberty; and yet, according to Mr. Canning's general advice, we are never to make any experiments or to engage in any struggles either with a view to future improvement, or to recover benefits which we have lost. Man (they repeat in our cars, line upon line, precept upon precept) is always to turn his back upon the future, and his face to the past. He is to believe that nothing is possible or desirable but what he finds already established to his hands in time-worn institutions or inveterate abuses. His understanding is to be buried in implicit creeds, and he himself is to be made into a political automaton, a go-cart of superstition and prejudice, never stirring hand or foot but as he is pulled by the wires and strings of the state-conjurers, the legitimate managers and proprietors of the show. His powers of will, of thought, and action are to be paralysed in him, and he is to be told and to believe that whatever is, must be. Perhaps Mr. Canning will say that men were to make experiments and to resolve upon struggles formerly, but that now they are to surrender their understandings and their rights into his keeping.



第110回

1091  (of cloth) worn thin; shabby
a t□□□□□□are coat
a t□□□□□□are emothional life

1092  stylish; easy and careless; sprightly
He wore his hat at a j□□□□y angle.
He is so j□□□□y that he has many friends.

1093  lying stretched out on the ground, usu face downward; laid low; completely subjugated
The wretched man p□□□□□□□ed himself before his conquerer.

1094  feeling of fear and discouragement (OALD)
He looked at me in d□□□□y.
They were d□□□□yed by this announcement.

1095  mean, stingy person; miser
The n□□□□d (n□□□□□d) then saith to his money…, my god arte thou (SOD)

1096  (recital of) the Load's Prayer; any muttered prayer or incarnation; rosary
p□□□□□□ster

1097  earnest; pious; very religious
a d□□□□t old lady

1098  deep, wide ditch filled with water, round castle, etc as a defence; ditch; trench
m□□t

1099  army officer's personal servant
b□□□□n

1100  physically strong; physically fit
a□□e-b□□ied country girl


日本語のローマ字表記(7) さよなら漢字、ようこそ英語

小学校から英語を教えると聞いた。

政府の言う英語というのは誤りで、正しくは米語である。

Americanである。

それはともかく、英語であれ米語であれ、ローマ字で書かれている言葉を覚えることになる。

就学したら、先ずひら仮名とカタカナを習う。あいうえお51字掛ける2だから、102字、 「ゐ」や「ゑ」、「ヰ」や「ヱ」がないから、100以下だ。

次に漢字を習う。教育漢字は1000個か、知らないが多分この位だろう。一口に1000個と言うが、これは大変な数である。

義務教育を受け終わった者は、どうということはないが、それは、覚えた頃の辛さを忘れてしまっているからだ。世間でいう、「喉元過ぎれば熱さを忘れる」である。

「いや、漢字に出合ったときの感動は今でも忘れません」と振り返る日本人は、1万人に1人いるかいないかだと思う。

その上に、英語まで覚えなければならない。学ぶことは増え続ける、その分遊びが疎かになる。遊びを削ると子供はバカになる。削ってはならない。

英語が加わった、遊びはけずれない。負荷は増すばかり、これでストレスが起きない児童はよほどタフかあるいはドンかだ。ストレスが限界に達すれば、イジメの手を使う。

では、どうするか。

答えは簡単明瞭、漢字を教えなければいいのだ。

これで時間は確保できる。

その時間を英語に充てることができる。

一挙両得である。一石二鳥である。

なぜなら、ローマ字化すれば、国語の授業で英語を教えることができるからである。

小学校の教師は学生時代に英語を勉強している。小学生に英語を教えるのに、単語3千はいらない、仮定法過去完了はいらない。

漢字でいえば、山、人、川、水、こんなレベルを教えればそれで十分である。

山を書かせる代わりに、マウンテンバイクのmountainを書かせる。
水を読ませる代わりに、ミネラルウオーターのwater を読ませる。

子供たちが日常接しているカタカナ英語を拾って教えても、相当数になる。おそらく1年分はあるだろう。

構文はS-V、S-V-Oなど基本の5個を単純な文で教えるだけ、その代わり、繰り返しみっちり教えることだ。

発音は問題ないか。小学校の教師が正しい発音を児童に教えることが可能か。

これは、次回で。

英語の復習 第108回裏・第109回

第108回裏

wain   bard   presentable   bounden   ruthless   companion   subtilize   discernible  limber   covey


He lit a cigarette and lingered at the carriage door. On his face was a happy smile. When they had passed through the Red Sea and found a sharp wind in the Canal, Anne had been surprised to see how much the men who had looked presentable enough in the white ducks in which she had been accustomed to see them, were changed when they left them off for warmer clothes.


I was invited to literary parties and to parties given by women of rank and fashion who thought it behoved them to patronise the arts. An unattached and fairly presentable young man is always in demand.


Oliver's face turned red with furious anger. His strange blue eyes grew cold with hatred, and he thrust out his scarlet lips till he had the ruthless expression of a Nero. The gibe at his obesity had caught him on the raw. Susie feared that he would make so insulting a reply that a quarrel must ensure.


Life was too short to waste in such solemn trifling, masquerading in a ridiculous costume which had to be left at home when any work was to be done. But he was young, with the world before him; there were many careers free to the man who had no fear of death. Africa opened her dusky arms to the adventurer, ruthless and desperate; the world was so large and manifold, there was ample scope for all his longing. If there were difficulties, he could overcome them; perils would add salt to the attempt, freedom would be like strong wine. Ah, that was what he desired, freedom--freedom to feel that he was his own master; that he was not enchained by the love and hate of others, by the ties of convention and of habit. Every bond was tedious. He had nothing to lose, and everything to win.
*masquerade: disguise oneself
*enchain: to bind with chains


At the edge of the hill, up which they climbed in serried hundreds, stood here and there an oak tree, just bursting into leaf, clothed with its new-born verdure, like the bride of the young god, Spring. And the ever-lasting youth of the oak trees contrasted wonderfully with the undying age of the firs. Then later, in the height of the summer, James found the pine wood cool and silent, fitting his humour. It was like the forest of life, the grey and sombre labyrinth where wandered the poet of Hell and Death. The tall trees rose straight and slender, like the barren masts of sailing ships; the gentle aromatic odour, the light subdued; the purple mist, so faint as to be scarcely discernible, a mere tinge of warmth in the day--all gave him an exquisite sense of rest. Here he could forget his trouble, and give himself over to the love which seemed his real life; here the recollection of Mrs. Wallace gained flesh and blood, seeming so real that he almost stretched out his arms to seize her.... His footfall on the brown needles was noiseless, and the tread was soft and easy; the odours filled him like an Eastern drug with drowsy intoxication.


If there is a propensity in the vulgar to admire the achievements of personal prowess or instances of fortunate enterprise too much, it cannot be denied that those who have to weigh out and dispense the meed of fame in books have been too much disposed, by a natural bias, to confine all merit and talent to the productions of the pen, or at least to those works which, being artificial or abstract representations of things, are transmitted to posterity, and cried up as models in their kind. This, though unavoidable, is hardly just. Actions pass away and are forgotten, or are only discernible in their effects; conquerors, statesmen, and kings live but by their names stamped on the page of history.



第109回

1081  disturb the composure of; upset the order of
Don't let their objections d□□□□□□ose you.
The breeze d□□□□□□osed the banquet.

1082  In India and neighbouring eastern countries: A light midday meal (SOD)
t□□□□n

1083  obtain by violence, threat, etc
e□□□□t money from sb
The police used torture to e□□□□t a confession from him.

1084  draw the eyebrows together
There was a deep f□□□n on his forehead.

1085  implied through not plainly expressed; unquestioning
an i□□□□□□t threat
The driver has i□□□□□□t faith in the power of horn.

1086  sorts of long-legged, short-tailed land bird that frequents marshy ground near the sea, esp (in England) the golden ~, the green ~, and the lapwing or peewit. (OALD)
an immense flock of golden p□□□□r

1087  a castrated male pig reared for meal; greedy, dirty, selfish person
We went the whole h□g and took a cruise around the world.
eat like a h□g

1088  estrange; cause sb to become unfriendly or indifferent
The prime minister's policy a□□□□□□ed many of his followers.

1089  door keeper; custodian; janitor
c□□□□□□ge

1090  embankment built to protect land from a river in flood
the l□□□es along the Mississippi


日本語のローマ字表記(6 )反対論とそれへの反論

チラリとネットを見たら、いくつか欠点が載っていた。紹介して、それに対する反論を試みる。


ローマ字化の欠点 その1
ローマ字のみの世代になるとローマ字以前の文書を読む際に、書き換えまたは読み替えをしなければならない。

反論
ローマ字以前の文書が読みたい人は、漢字やかなを自分で学べばいい。二千年前の日本人の苦労に比べれば屁の河童だ。移行は突然に行われない。たぶん5年から10年は現行の表記とローマ字表記が併用されることになるのではないか。ハングル化が参考になると思う。

字を読む人は字を読むのが目的でなく、その内容を知るのが目的である。書くのも同じ。ローマ字だから読まない、書かないと文句を言う人は口先だけで、この種の人たちは今の漢字・かなの文章である現行表記でも読みもしなければ書もしない。

公文書などは、役所の担当部署が口頭で説明すればいい。(後期高齢者集団の私の島では実際に行われている) 5年もあれば、わずか26個のローマ字。義務教育で習ったのだから思い出せないはずがない。

また若いローマ字のみの世代は、そもそも漢字もかなも知らないわけだから、読み替えることはない。

法律や医学などの専門分野でも、ローマ字化は問題ない。たとえローマ字文書にならなくても、漢字世代の専門家はそのまま読めるし、一般人は法律文書など、漢字でもローマ字でも最初から読まない。

日本国憲法を通読した日本人は果たして何人いるだろう。ローマ字になったからと言って、特に読まなくなるとは考えられない。


ローマ字化の欠点 その2
かな表記に比べて日本語を書き表す上で冗長である。

反論
かな表記は漢字混在を意味していると解釈する。

これは目くそ鼻くそである。漢字が簡潔であればともかく、漢字だって横に長くならない分、四角の升目の中で十分冗長であるではないか。

「簡潔」の画数はいくらか数えてみよう。簡は18画、潔は15画、合わせて33画。KANKETSUは20画。筆記体はどうか。簡潔が一筆書きなら2画あるいは1画になるかもしれないが、果たして何人書けるだろうか、何人読めるだろうか。ローマ字は1画。誰でも慣れれば書けるし読める。ただその必要があるかどうか、私は否定的である。

かなのみの表記を主張する側の考えとすれば、それなりに説得力はある。ただし長さだけに限ってのことだが。

いずれにせよ、文字は書くのでなく、キーを叩く時代になった今、長さにそれほど重要性は認められない。


ローマ字化の欠点 その3
横にしか書けない。縦でも書けないことはないが、可読性に劣る。

反論
なぜ縦書きがなければならないか。横から読んでも「やまもとやま」上から読んでも「やまもとやま」だ。

横書きで済ませられるものを、わざわさ縦にするのは酔狂である。縦書きがあれば都合がいいのは縦長の看板くらい。これさえ、TOKYO をT、,O、K、Y、Oの順に上からならべなくてもTOKYOをTを頭に横書きで不便はない。

英語の出版物の背表紙は、厚手以外すべてこの横書きで、私は、首を横にして読むことはないし、本を寝かせて読むこともしない。


ローマ字化の欠点 その4
社会に混乱を招くなど文化的経済的損失が発生する可能性がある。

反論
辞令を受けてから1週間で転勤などという会社の転勤命令のようなことはない。移行期間を設けるのだから混乱はない。個別的な混乱は混乱とは言わない、たんなる戸惑いである。社会の混乱は針小棒大というものだ。

ハングルはお隣さんのこととして、日本にも先例がある。

地デジ化は数年かけている。地デジはまるでアナログ放送など日本になかったかの様に今やデンと居間にあぐらをかいている。今世紀最悪の裁判員制度でさえ数年かけている。裁判員制度が混乱を招き続けているのは、制度がデタラメかつ道理に反しているためであって、ローマ字化の前例にはならない。新しい制度にはそれなりの準備期間が必要だし、変革にも移行期間が必要であることが何もローマ字化に限らないことを言いたい。

「文化的」漢字の文化とはなんぞや。

日本人は当たり前のように漢字を使ってきているが、漢字は読んで字の如く漢の国、中国の文字である。漢字の文化は中国の文化である。たまたま日本に文字がなかったから、かつ使用料をおおような中国が要求しなかったから使っただけのことだ。(当時の日本人は話すことだけはできた。サルとは違う。我が日本人の名誉のために記しておく)

漢字文化は中国の文化であり、日本の漢字文化は借用文化である。使用禁止になっても日本語は生き続けていく。

田羅地根野

これは「でんらちこんや」ではない、「たらちねの」である。TARACHINENOである。

たとえ「たらちねの」の意味を古語辞典で知ったとしても、田羅地根野の意味が何でなるのか、正解にたどり着くまでかなりの時間が掛かるだろう。私は10年かけてもできない。

漢詩はすばらしい。中国文化はこの漢詩と囲碁に尽きると私は確信している。この漢字存続論者は漢詩が読めなくなる心配をしているのだろうか、もしそうだとしたら、偏見である。えこ贔屓である。

漢詩を中国語で読まない限り、漢詩もローマ字で事足りる。

少年易老学難成

シャオニエンイラオシュエナンチェングと読む日本人はまずいない。大学で第二外国語に中国語を選択した学生のレベルではこの28字の詩は読めない。

しょうねん、おいやすく、がく、なりがたし

と読む。これで問題はない。

SHOUNEN, OIYASUKU, GAKU, NARIGATASHI

と替えても問題ない。

SHOUNENの発音は漢語読みである。このSHOUNENが若者の意味であることは日本人なら誰でも知っている。支障はない。それでも漢字を知りたいというのなら、自分で調べればいいだけのこと。社会が面倒をみる必要はない。

次に「経済的損失」

これを主張する人たちは経済オンチである。たぶん、文化的だけでは物足りないと感じて、ヒョイと付け加えたのであろう。 実際は「莫大なる経済効果」が約束されているのである。

エコカーで大もうけした車屋、地デジで大もうけしたテレビ屋、地震津波で大もうけした土建屋、資本主義社会では、善悪無関係にとにかく変化さえ起きれば万々歳の社会である。変化が起きなければ、起こす工夫をする。エコカー優遇、地デジの他は観れなくなる、(業界の意に従って)政府のやったことである。

ローマ字化は短期的・直接的にはせいぜい紙屋とインク屋と製本屋が潤うくらいだろうが、少なくとも損失にはあたらない。千年の将来を思えば、経済波及効果の方が数千・数万倍大きい。


ローマ字化の欠点 その5
漢字に比べ、読むのにはるかに時間がかかる。

反論
幼稚な主張である。これは慣れの問題でしかない。

漢字を小さい時から習った者は、やさしい漢字、例えば「山」は瞬時に読む。ならば「跋扈」はどうか、「顰蹙」はどうか。

Tokyo、Toshiba、TOYOTAと東京、東芝、トヨタとどちらが速く読めるか。同着である。なぜなら、Tokyo、Toshiba、TOYOTAが見慣れているからだ。

初めから「やま」をyamaで覚えた者は、瞬時でやまを想起する。


ローマ字化の欠点 その6
ルビをふることでローマ字の利点を簡単に取り込むことができるのでローマ字化は不要。

反論
これは欠点というより、不要ということであろう。

ルビは漢字に振る。漢字が読めない者はルビを読むことになる。漢字はただ邪魔になるだけである。龍之介の短編小説の1編でも読んで見ればいい。ルビのありがたさが身にしみるはずだ。

私は今、漱石の「吾輩は猫である」を教材に日本語の復習をしている。ネットのテキストは、ルビが振ってある。実に目障りである。ルビがなければ読めない漢字がでてくると、ルビに頼ることになる。知っている漢字にはルビが目障り、と言って、なければ読めない漢字がでてくれば困る。

なんのことはない、漢字がなければ、そしてルビだけなら、こんな悩みは起きない、あるから悩むのである。 不要なのは、漢字の方だ。


以上で、ローマ字化反対論への反論は閉じることにする。この項は、走り書きである。反対論の根拠のあまりの低さに推敲する意欲が湧かなかったためである。

次回は、英語教育におけるローマ字化の効用を。

英語の復習 第107回裏・第108回

第107回裏

acting   backwater  rasp   jocund   footman   quash   sacrament  inveigle  roster   hash


On the summit of this hill was a palace, with a goodly and great courtyard in its midst and galleries and saloons and bedchambers, each in itself most fair and adorned and notable with jocund paintings, with lawns and grassplots round about and wonder-goodly gardens and wells of very cold water and cellars full of wines of price, things more apt unto curious drinkers than unto sober and modest ladies.
*grassplot: A piece of ground covered with turf, sometimes ornamented with flower-beds. (SOD)


Dioneo, who had diligently hearkened to the queen's story, seeing that it was ended and that it rested with him alone to tell, without awaiting commandment, smilingly began to speak as follows: "Charming ladies, maybe you have never heard tell how one putteth the devil in hell; wherefore, without much departing from the tenor of that whereof you have discoursed all this day, I will e'en tell it you. Belike, having learned it, you may catch the spirit thereof and come to know that, albeit Love sojourneth liefer in jocund palaces and luxurious chambers than in the hovels of the poor, yet none the less doth he whiles make his power felt midmost thick forests and rugged mountains and in desert caverns; whereby it may be understood that all things are subject to his puissance.
*hovel: a ramshackle dwelling place; small house or cottage that is unfit to live in
*puissance: archaic or poetic power


Between the years of ninety-two and a hundred and two, however, we shall be the ribald, useless, drunken outcast person we have always wished to be. We shall have a long white beard and long white hair; we shall not walk at all, but recline in a wheel chair and bellow for alcoholic beverages; in the winter we shall sit before the fire with our feet in a bucket of hot water, with a decanter of corn whiskey near at hand, and write ribald songs against organized society; strapped to one arm of our chair will be a forty-five caliber revolver, and we shall shoot out the lights when we want to go to sleep, instead of turning them off; when we want air we shall throw a silver candlestick through the front window and be damned to it; we shall address public meetings to which we have been invited because of our wisdom in a vein of jocund malice. We shall ... but we don't wish to make any one envious of the good time that is coming to us ... we look forward to a disreputable, vigorous, unhonored and disorderly old age.



第108回

1071  large farm wagon
From the sun-burnt hay-field, homeward creeps The loaded w□□n – Cower (SOD)
Charles's W□□n

1072  an ancient Celtic poet, composer, and singer.
the b□□d of Avon
b□□ds sang to the music of the harp

1073  fit to appear, be shown, in public
Is this old suit still p□□□□□□able?

1074  obliged; compulsory
I am b□□□□□ned to him for my success.
one's b□□□□□n duty

1075  cruel; without pity; showing no mercy
r□□□□□□s criticism of modern society

1076  staircase from the deck of a ship to the saloon or cabins
c□□□□□□on

1077  sublimate; exalt; sharpen; refine
s□□□□□□ze one's character
s□□□□□□ze words

1078  distinguishable; perceptible
What is best is not always d□□□□□□ible.

1079  flexible; lithe; nimble
l□□□□r fingers
She tried to l□□□□r up her wits before the exam.

1080  small flock or brood of birds, esp. partridges or quail; a small group of people
a c□□□y of school girls

辞書の重さ 前から気になっていたこと

漁協に灯油を買いに行った。

禁帯出の掟を破って、我が3大辞書を持ち出し、宅配便計量用として備えてある秤を借りて、辞書を計った。

WTID        5.1キロ
SOD        3.5キロ
Collins       3.4キロ

重いはずだ。

私はこれを紙の重さと思っていない。

黒インクで刷られた内容の重さと考えている。

同じ黒インクでも、今は2色刷りまである、そんじょそこらの英和辞典の黒インクとは刷られた内容が違う。

今はまだ、WTIDを片手でなんとか持ち上げられる。

来年はたぶんだめだろう。(生きていればの話だが)

その時は、3分冊化する。

WTIDは版元から3分冊が発行されているそうな。程度のよい中古本があれば買ってもいい。


(WTID: Webster's Third New International Dictionary)

日本語のローマ字表記(5) ローマ字五十音図(続)

1.
日本語の発音に不要な子音も外国語をそのまま使う時のために五十音図に加えておく。
Don Quixote
Ludwig van Beethoven

2.
長音は母音を重ねる、あるいはuを付ける。
choofuku; choufuku (重複)

3.
nの分岐はアポストロフィ(カンマ)で仕切る
an’nai; an’icu (案内;安逸)
ge’nin; gen’in (下人;原因)

4.固有名詞は大文字で始める。

5.外国語・外来語は原語が好ましいが、日本語の発音でもよい。(この項は後述)
revenge; libenji
water; uootaa
President Trump; Toranpu daitouryou
Xi Qinping; Shuu Kinpei
Brasil; Brazil; Burajiru

これは一つの提案にすぎない。

英語の復習   第106回裏・第107回

第106回裏

scarlatina   loath   Roundhead   posterior   lunette   ignoble   dean   waver  cuttlefish   posthumous


‘How do you mean that nothing that concerned you was at stake? If that’s true then your whole life is a sham. You’ve given away everything you stood for, everything we both stand for. You’ve let all of us down. We did set ourselves up on a pinnacle, we did think ourselves better than the rest of them because we loved literature and art and music, we weren’t content to live a life of ignoble jealousies and vulgar tittle–tattle, we did cherish the things of the spirit, and we loved beauty. It was our food and drink. They laughed at us and sneered at us. That was inevitable. The ignorant and the common naturally hate and fear those who are interested in things they don’t understand. We didn’t care. We called them Philistines. We despised them and we had a right to despise them. Our justification was that we were better and nobler and wiser and braver than they were. And you weren’t better, you weren’t nobler, you weren’t braver. When the crisis came you slunk away like a whipped cur with his tail between his legs. You of all people hadn’t the right to be a coward. They despise us now and they have the right to despise us. Us and all we stood for. Now they can say that art and beauty are all rot; when it comes to a pinch people like us always let you down. They never stopped looking for a chance to turn and rend us and you gave it to them. They can say that they always expected it. It’s a triumph for them. I used to be furious because they called you Powder–Puff Percy. Did you know they did?’
* tittle–tattle: idle chat or gossip
*Powder–puff: a soft pad or ball of fluffy material used for appling cosmetic powder to the skin


But as Soapy set foot inside the restaurant door the head waiter's eye fell upon his frayed trousers and decadent shoes. Strong and ready hands turned him about and conveyed him in silence and haste to the sidewalk and averted the ignoble fate of the menaced mallard.
*mallard: kind of wild duck (OALD)


Chandler's patent leather shoes to the edge of his low-cut vest. So much of the hero's toilet may be intrusted to our confidence. The remainder may be guessed by those whom genteel poverty has driven to ignoble expedient. Our next view of him shall be as he descends the steps of his lodging-house immaculately and correctly clothed; calm, assured, handsome—in appearance the typical new york young clubman setting out, slightly bored, to inaugurate the pleasures of the evening.
*immaculate: 1 completely clean; extremely tidy 2 completely flawless, etc 3 morally pure; free from sin or corruption 4 biology of only one colour, with no spots or markings
*intrust: entrust


He burrowed in crevices and corners, and found corks and cigarettes. These he passed in passive contempt. But once he found in a fold of the matting a alf-smoked cigar, and this he ground beneath his heel with a green and trenchant oath. He sifted the room from end to end. He found dreary and ignoble small records of many a peripatetic tenant; but of her whom he sought, and who may have lodged there, and whose spirit seemed to hover there, he found no trace.
*trenchant: 1 keen or incisive 2 vigorous and effective 3 distinctly defined 4 archaic or poetic sharp
*peripatetic: going about from place to place; wandering (OALD)


The American bragged in a nasal whine, the Briton patronized in a throaty burble. Whoever among the struggling nations of the world might win, England saw to it that she never lost; your Yankee was content with the more ignoble triumphs of merchandising, willing to cheapen life if he could only add to his dollars. But the excellence of English political institutions and methods, the charm of English life, the tremendous power of the Empire for promoting freedom and civilization in the world, these are things which Americans have long recognized and in a way understood. Anything like an equivalent British appreciation of America in the large seems confined to a very few honorable exceptions among them. Admiration for Niagara, which is half British anyway, or enthusiasm for the "Wild West"--your better-class Englishman always thrills to the frontier—is no step at all toward rightly appreciating America.



第107回

1061  doing the duties of another person for a time
the A□□□□g Manager

1062  part of a river not reached by its current, where the water does not flow: (fig) place, condition of mind, untouched by events, progress, etc
This area of the country is a b□□□□□□er that continues to resist progress.

1063 (fig) grate upon, have an irritating effect upon; make a harsh, grating sound
a learner r□□ping (away) on his violin

1064  merry, cheerful
a witty and j□□□□d group

1065  manservant who admits visitors, waits at table, etc.
f□□□□□n

1066  put an end to, annul, reject as not valid
q□□□h a verdict/decision

1067  solemn religious ceremony in the Christian Church
s□□□□□□nt (eg Baptism, Confirmation, Matrimoney)

1068  trick by using flattery, deception, etc.
i□□□□□□e sb into investing his money unwisingly

1069  a list of names of persons showing duties to be performed by each in turn
The club has outstanding players on the r□□□□r.

1070  chop or cut up (meat) into small pieces; (dish of) cooked meat; mess
h□□hed and recooked
a h□□h of unorganized facts and figures


英語の復習   第105回裏・第106回

第105回裏

foolery    screech    infamy   scabrous    lubber   emulate   catalepsy    meticulous    audacious   mire


Bateman Hunter knew that his heart was pure, but he was not quite sure how steadfastly, when he told her his story, he would endure the scrutiny of Isabel Longstaffe’s cool grey eyes. They were far–seeing and wise. She measured the standards of others by her own meticulous uprightness and there could be no greater censure than the cold silence with which she expressed her disapproval of a conduct that did not satisfy her exacting code. There was no appeal from her judgement, for, having made up her mind, she never changed it. But Bateman would not have had her different. He loved not only the beauty of her person, slim and straight, with the proud carriage of her head, but still more the beauty of her soul. With her truthfulness, her rigid sense of honour, her fearless outlook, she seemed to him to collect in herself all that was most admirable in his country–women. But he saw in her something more than the perfect type of the American girl, he felt that her exquisiteness was peculiar in a way to her environment, and he was assured that no city in the world could have produced her but Chicago.
*carriage: the manner in which a person holds and moves his head and body; bearing


American books too seldom come to grips with the problems of life, especially the books cast in artistic forms. The essayists, expounders, and preachers attack life vigorously and wrestle with the meaning of it. The poets are thin, moonshiny, meticulous in technique. Novelists are few and feeble, and dramatists are non-existent. These generalities, subject to exceptions, are confirmed by a reading of the first fifteen volumes of the _Atlantic Monthly_, which are a treasure-house of the richest period of American literary expression.
*moonshine: foolish talk or thought


The peculiar smoke of their rare, fat brown cigars was to be perceived in the sanctum of every department of state, in every committee-room of the Legislature, in every bank parlour and every private caucus-room in the state Capital. Always pleasant, never in a hurry, in seeming to possess unlimited leisure, people wondered when they gave their attention to the many audacious enterprises in which they were known to be engaged.
*caucus: (meeting of the) organization committee of a political party (making plans, decisions, etc) (OALD)


‘I am a man of the world,’ he said, ‘and I flatter myself that I have no prejudices, tous les goûts sont dans la nature, but I do not think I could bring myself to marry a Gentile. There’s no harm in going to the opera in a dinner jacket, but it just would never occur to me to do so.’
‘Then why didn’t you marry a Jewess?’
(I did not hear this conversation, but the lively and audacious creature who thus tackled him told me of it.)
‘Oh, my dear, our women are so prolific. I could not bear the thought of peopling the world with a little Ikey and a little Jacob and a little Rebecca and a little Leah and a little Rachel.’
* tous les goûts sont dans la nature: (F) all of tastes are in the nature(?)


A woman of thirty might have been proud of them. But her dress was extraordinary. I had not often seen anything more audacious. It was cut very low, with short skirts, which were then the fashion, in black and yellow; it had almost the effect of fancy–dress and yet so became her that though on anyone else it would have been outrageous, on her it had the inevitable simplicity of nature. And to complete the impression of an eccentricity in which there was no pose and of an extravagance in which there was no ostentation she wore, attached by a broad black ribbon, a single eyeglass.



106回

1051  scarlet fever
s□□□□□□□□a

1052  unwilling; reluctant
they were l□□□h to depart
She sat beside him, nothing l□□□h.

1053  member of the Parliament side in the Civil War in the 17th
c in England (OALD)
R□□□□□□ad

1054  late in time or order; placed behind; (humour) buttocks
kick his p□□□□□□or

1055  an ornament of crescent shape; a blinder esp. for a vicious horse
a gold l□□□□□e set with diamonds

1056  dishonorable; shameful; (old use) of low birth
an i□□□□□e man
an i□□□□□e peace

1057  clergyman at the head of a cathedral chapter; (in some universities) person with authoritiy to maintain discipline
the d□□n of men

1058  move uncertainly or unsteadily; be or become unsteady; hesitate
w□□□ring shadows
w□□□r between two opinions

1059  sea-water animal with long arms (tentacles), which sends out black liquid when attacked (OALD)
c□□□□□□ish

1060  born after the death of its father; coming or happening after death
p□□□□□□ous fame
the p□□□□□□ous award of a Victoria Cross


日本語のローマ字表記(4) ローマ字五十音図

a     i     u      e      o
ba    bi    bu    be    bo
ca    ci    cu    ce    co  
da    di    du    de    do
fa     fi     fu    fe     fo   
ga    gi    gu    ge    go   
ha    hi    hu    he    ho   
ja    ji     ju    je     jo  
ka    ki    ku    ke    ko
la    li     lu    le     lo  
ma   mi    mu   me    mo  
na   ni     nu     ne    no  
p    pi     p    pe    po  
qua  qui    quu   que   quo
ra    ri    ru     re    ro   
sa   si     su    se    so
ta    ti     tu     te    to
va   vi     vu     ve    vo  
wa   wi     wu     we   wo  
xa   xi     xu     xe    xo
ya   yi     yu     ye    yo  
za   zi     zu     ze    zo  

cha chi chu che cho
sha shi shu she sho
zha zhi zhu zhe zho

bya byu byo
dya dyu dyo
fya fyu fyo
gya gyu gyo
hya hyu hyo
kya kyu kyo
lya lyu lyo
mya myu myo
nya nyu nyo
pya pyu pyo
rya ryu ryo
tya tyu tyo
vya vyu vyo

n


英語の復習 第104回裏・第105回

104回裏

castigate   tirade    idyll    lorn    prodigious    verbena    dastard    curtail    quake    molest



The green-finch--that beautiful-winged Mrs Gummidge among birds--is also abundant, and slips down nervously every now and then among the groundsel in the unweeded garden. I confess the greenfinch has all my sympathy, but it rather bores me. What the deuce is it worrying about? There is no poetry in its lamentation--only a sort of habitual formula of a poor, lorn woman. If birds could read, I think I should add to the notices I put up a little board containing the words:
  "No bottles.
   No hawkers,
   No greenfinches."
*greenfinch: a common European finch
* groundsel: kinds of weed, the commonest kind of which is used as food for some cage-birds. (OALD)


Susie learnt that the Haddos had a suite of rooms at the most expensive of the hotels. They lived in a whirl of gaiety. They knew few English except those whose reputations were damaged, but seemed to prefer the society of those foreigners whose wealth and eccentricities made them the cynosure of that little world. Afterwards, she often saw them, in company of Russian Grand-Dukes and their mistresses, of South American women with prodigious diamonds, of noble gamblers and great ladies of doubtful fame, of strange men overdressed and scented. Rumour was increasingly busy with them. Margaret moved among all those queer people with a cold mysteriousness that excited the curiosity of the sated idlers.
*cynosure: 1 a person or thing that attracts notice, esp because of its brilliance or beauty 2 something that serves as a guide


The final impression I received was of a prodigious effort to express some state of the soul, and in this effort, I fancied, must be sought the explanation of what so utterly perplexed me.


Bateman thanked his stars it was. He felt that he must look prodigiously foolish in his blue serge suit and high collar--very neat and gentlemanly--with that ridiculous wreath of flowers on his head. He was seething with indignation, and he had never in his life exercised more self-control than now when he presented an affable exterior. He was furious with that old man, sitting at the head of the table, half-naked, with his saintly face and the flowers on his handsome white locks. The whole position was monstrous.


Turning, he hurled his satchel with fury at the lawyer's head. It struck that astounded peacemaker between the eyes, causing him to stagger backward a pace or two. When Lawyer Gooch recovered his wits he saw that his client had disappeared. Rushing to the window, he leaned out, and saw the recreant gathering himself up from the top of a shed upon which he had dropped from the second-story window. Without stopping to collect his hat he then plunged downward the remaining ten feet to the alley, up which he flew with prodigious celerity until the surrounding building swallowed him up from view.
*recreant: archaic 1 cowardly; faint-hearted 2 disloyal 3 a disloyal or cowardly person
*celerity: rapidity; swiftness; speed


Capacity is not the same thing as genius. Capacity may be described to relate to the quantity of knowledge, however acquired; genius, to its quality and the mode of acquiring it. Capacity is power over given ideas combinations of ideas; genius is the power over those which are not given, and for which no obvious or precise rule can be laid down. Or capacity is power of any sort; genius is power of a different sort from what has yet been shown. A retentive memory, a clear understanding, is capacity, but it is not genius. The admirable Crichton was a person of prodigious capacity; but there is no proof (that I know) that he had an atom of genius. His verses that remain are dull and sterile. He could learn all that was known of any subject; he could do anything if others could show him the way to do it. This was very wonderful; but that is all you can say of it. It requires a good capacity to play well at chess; but, after all, it is a game of skill, and not of genius.
*retentive: having the capacity to retain or remember



第105回

1041  foolish behaviour; foolish acts, ideas or utterances
tricks and f□□□□□ies

1042  make a harsh, piercing sound; cry out in high tones
jet planes s□□□□□hing over the house tops
The truck s□□□□□hed to a stop.

1043  public dishonor; evil reputation
hold a person up to i□□□□y

1044  having a rough surface; difficult to write delicately about; obscene
s□□□□□□s stems of cucurbitaceous plants
a s□□□□□□s novel

1045  big, clumsy, stupid fellow; lout; worthless idler
l□□□□r

1046  try to do as well as or better than; to rival successfully
e□□□□□e one's father
The artists of New York now e□□□□□e those of Paris in achievement.

1047  a condition of suspended animation and loss of voluntary motion associated with hysteria and schizophrenia in man and with organic nervous disease in animals and characterized by a trancelike state of consciousness and a posture in which the limbs hold any position the are placed in (WTID); disease in which the sufferer has periods when he loses consciousness and sensation and his muscles become rigid (OALD)
c□□□□□□sy

1048  extemely or excessively careful about details; scrupulous
be m□□□□□□ous about one's personal apperance

1049  daring; bold; foolishly bold; impudent
an a□□□□□□us worrier
an a□□□□□□us vision of the future

1050  swampy ground; soft, deep mud; cover with mud; sink in mud
be in the m□□e
The roads were heavy with m□□e

Fan Fan  

親猫の「愛」は捨て猫である。

誰かが島に持ってきて、置いていったのである。

島のノラが産んだのであれば、島の住民は小さい時から目撃している。

その上、ノラが産んだ子供なら大人になる前にカラスにやられて生き延びてきた可能性は小である。

愛にエサを与えて寝場所を与えたのは、いずれは元のノラ生活に戻ることになるが、私が島で生活している間という期間限定で暖衣飽食を満喫してもらえばいいということで、私の無きあとまでの責任は感じていない。

その子供はどうか。

愛が初産だったかどうかわからない。栄養が悪くて妊娠することがなかったのかもしれない。産んでも栄養不足で授乳が十分できず、子供が餓死したのかもしれない。

今はどうか。

私が十分な食事と寝場所を与えたために、子供が産まれたのではないか。

私が食事と寝場所を与えなければ、子供は生まれなかったのではないか。

もしもそうだとしたら、産まれた子供を保護する責任があるのではないか。

とくにFan Fanはメスである。 大人になれば発情し、妊娠し、出産する。

そうしたら、その子供たちにも私は保護する責任があるのではないか。

私は日々のびやかに遊び、大きくなっていくFan Fanを眺めながらどうしたものか先々の事ながら悩んでいる。


(2017年2月7日)

渡邉竜王 信じる師匠と叱らぬ師匠

囲碁の世界もそうだが、将棋のプロは必ず師匠がいる。

技術指導は普通しない。入門の時に1局、縁を断つ時に記念に1局、合計2局指すだけだそうだ。

それではなぜ師匠がいるのか。

人間形成である。

小学校や中学の教室で一人の担任教師が大勢の生徒を育てる。行き届かなくても教師に責任はない。

将棋の師匠は、一対一の関係で弟子を育てる。

三浦九段の師匠は、弟子を信じた。彼をカンニングするような男に形成しなかったことに自信があった。

方や、渡邉竜王の師匠。対局直前に卑劣極まりない盤外作戦をマスコミを利用して展開した弟子を育てて、恥としない。

恥れば、三浦九段の無実が確認される前に破門しているはずである。

確認の前とは、週刊誌などに他人をドロボー呼ばわりした時点である。たとえカンニングの現場を目撃したとしても、鬼の首を取ったように騒ぐようなことをしたら、破門とまではいかなくても叱りつけるのが師匠としての資格である。

芸能界では弟が不祥事を起こす、息子が不祥事を起こす、するとマスコはここぞとばかり、姉や親をしつこく攻撃する。

兄弟、親子は恣意的な関係ではない。当人の不幸に飽き足らず、親兄弟までも不幸にさせようとするゲス行為である。

師匠と弟子の関係は別である。

それなのに、師匠に監督責任を問うようなことはしない。世間を不幸に導く材料にならない事のためである。

だいぶ前のことである。

米長邦雄が弟子の林葉直子を破門した。

たしか彼女の就位式の晴れ舞台の席だったと思う。華やいだ雰囲気の中で突然、今日限りで破門する、宣告した。

いかにも才気ばしった米長らしいやり方であった。

なぜ破門したのか、説明がなかった。

説明責任などというけったいな物を必要としない、それが師匠というものだから、周りも驚かない。

渡邉竜王の師匠に米長流は必要ない。

ごく普通でいい。

「今日限り、渡邉を破門する」

英語の復習   第103回裏・第104回

第103回裏

maleficent    cavalcade    ineradicable    vasculum    urchin    quail   brazier    theocracy    idiocy    gabble


Good gracious, no,’ said Ashenden. ‘All sensible people know that vanity is the most devastating, the most universal, and the most ineradicable of the passions that afflict the soul of man, and it is only vanity that makes him deny its power. It is more consuming than love. With advancing years, mercifully, you can snap your fingers at the terror and the servitude of love, but age cannot free you from the thraldom of vanity. Time can assuage the pangs of love, but only death can still the anguish of wounded vanity. Love is simple and seeks no subterfuge, but vanity cozens you with a hundred disguises. It is part and parcel of every virtue: it is the mainspring of courage and the strength of ambition; it gives constancy to the lover and endurance to the stoic; it adds fuel to the fire of the artist’s desire for fame and is at once the support and the compensation of the honest man’s integrity; it leers even cynically in the humility of the saint. You cannot escape it, and should you take pains to guard against it, it will make use of those very pains to trip you up. You are defenceless against its onslaught because you know not on what unprotected side it will attack you. Sincerity cannot protect you from its snare nor humour from its mockery.’
Ashenden stopped, not because he had said all he had to say, but because he was out of breath.
*thraldom: the state or condition of being in the power of another person
*onslaught: a violent attack


His religion, strictly defined, is AN INERADICABLE BELIEF IN HIS OWN RELIGIOUSNESS. As an Englishman, he holds as birthright the true Piety, the true Morals. That he has "gone wrong" is, alas, undeniable, but never--even when leering most satirically--did he deny his creed. When, at public dinners and elsewhere, he tuned his voice to the note of edification, this man did not utter the lie of the hypocrite he MEANT EVERY WORD HE SAID. Uttering high sentiments, he spoke, not as an individual, but as an Englishman, and most thoroughly did he believe that all who heard him owed in their hearts allegiance to the same faith. He is, if you like, a Pharisee--but do not misunderstand; his Pharisaism has nothing personal.
*allegiance: loyalty, as of a subject to his sovreign or of a citizen to his country



第104回

1031  punish severely with blows or by criticizing; purify
be c□□□□□□ted for one's mischief

1032  a long, angry or scolding speech; harangue; a passage or section of verse
a t□□□□e in the Senate
the stately t□□□□es of Corneille

1033  a short descriptive poem usu. dealing with pastral or rural life; eclogue (WTID)
i□□□l

1034  forlorn; desolate
a lone, l□□n widow

1035  enormous; surprisingly great; wonderful
a p□□□□□□ous sum of money
a p□□□□□□ous opportunity

1036  kinds of herbaceous plant of which garden varieties have flowers of many colours
a patch of scarlet v□□□□□as in full bloom

1037  bully; coward who is brutal when there is no risk to himself
like a d□□□□□d and a treacherous coward – Shakes (WTID)

1038  make shorter than was at first planned; cut off a part of
to c□□□□□l a speech/one’s holidays

1039  (of the earth) shake; (of person) tremble
q□□□ing with fear/cold

1040  trouble or annoy intentionally; make indecent sexual advances
charges of being drunk and m□□□□ting a woman – Frank Yerby (WTID)




英語の復習   第102回裏・第103回

第102回裏

self-same   enumerate    fetter   invigorating   tipple    allure   fervent    knuckle-duster(brass-knuckles)    judicious    thaw
 


The masters had no patience with modern ideas of education, which they read of sometimes in The Times or The Guardian, and hoped fervently that King's School would remain true to its old traditions.


A rift in the clouds in a gray day threw a shaft of sunlight upon her coffin as her nervous, energetic little body sank to its last sleep. But the soul of her, the glowing, gorgeous, fervent soul of her, surely was flaming in eager joy upon some other dawn.
*rift: a gap or space made by cleaving or splitting; fissure


To the grey weather-worn gratings of the doors of the shrine hundreds and hundreds of strips of soft white paper have been tied in knots: there is nothing written upon them, although each represents a heart's wish and a fervent prayer.


Compelled by a sudden and vigorous movement of the woman, the parade halted before the window by which Lorison stood. He saw that she was young, and, at the first glance, was deceived by a sophistical prettiness of her face, which waned before a more judicious scrutiny. Her look was bold and reckless, and upon her countenance, where yet the contours of youth survived, were the finger-marks of old age's credentialed courier, Late Hours.
*scrutiny: close or minute examination
*contour: the outline of a mass of land, figure, or body; a defining line
*credential:something that entitles a person to confidence, authority, etc. credentialed adj


We can hardly _believe_ a thing to be a lie, though we _know_ it to be so. The 'puff direct,' even as it stands in the columns of the _Times_ newspaper, branded with the title of Advertisement before it, claims some sort of attention and respect for the merits that it discloses, though we think the candidate for public favour and support has hit upon (perhaps) an injudicious way of laying them before the world. Still there may be something in them; and even the outrageous improbability and extravagance of the statement on the very face of it stagger us, and leave a hankering to inquire farther into it, because we think the advertiser would hardly have the impudence to hazard such barefaced absurdities without some foundation.
*barefaced: 1 unconcealed or shameless 2 with the face uncovered or shaven


The trees, like the shrubs, have their curious poetry and legends. Like the stones, each tree has its special landscape name according to its position and purpose in the composition. Just as rocks and stones form the skeleton of the ground-plan of a garden, so pines form the framework of its foliage design. They give body to the whole. In this garden there are five pines,--not pines tormented into fantasticalities, but pines made wondrously picturesque by long and tireless care and judicious trimming. The object of the gardener has been to develop to the utmost possible degree their natural tendency to rugged line and massings of foliage--that spiny sombre-green foliage which Japanese art is never weary of imitating in metal inlay or golden lacquer. The pine is a symbolic tree in this land of symbolism. Ever green, it is at once the emblem of unflinching purpose and of vigorous old age; and its needle- shaped leaves are credited with the power of driving demons away.
*massing: the act or an instance of gathering or forming into a mass (WTID)
* unflinching: not shrinking from danger, difficulty, etc


There was, for example, the salad of cold sliced potatoes and onions, drenched in oil and vinegar, a glorious dish with cold meat to go to bed on! Also hot maize-meal cakes eaten with syrup at breakfast, and other injudicious cakes. As a rule it was a hot breakfast and midday dinner; an afternoon tea, with hot bread and scones and peach-preserve, and a late cold supper. For breakfast, mutton cutlets, coffee, and things made with maize. Eggs were plentiful — eggs of fowl, duck, goose, and wild fowl’s eggs — wild duck and plover in their season. In spring — August to October — we occasionally had an ostrich or rhea’s egg in the form of a huge omelette at breakfast, and it was very good.
*maize: (also called Indian corn) sort of grain plant (OALD)
* rhea: three-toed ostrich of S America (OALD)


第103回

1021  hurtful (to); harmful; evil
m□□□□□□ent destroyers of reputations
books m□□□□□□ent to children

1022  a parade or ceremonial procession, as of horsemen, carriages, etc.
a c□□□□□□te of movie stars

1023  that cannot be rooted out; firmly and deeply rooted
an i□□□□□□cable fault/failing
This problem has now been completely e□□□□□□ted.

1024  a metal case used by botanists to carry specimen plants
v□□□□□□m

1025   mischievous small child; poor destitute child
u□□□□n

1026  feel or show fear; to draw back in fear
He q□□□led at the prospect before him.

1027  a potable open metal framework for holding a charcoal or coal fire
b□□□□□r

1028  government by priests claiming to rule with devine authority
t□□□□□□cy

1029  state of being an idiot; extreme stupidity
the i□□□□y of war

日本語のローマ字表記(3) カタカナ・ひら仮名は平安時代の遺物

中国以外の外国と付き合うまでは、これでよかった。

英語が日本語に入り続けている今は違う。

today:ツデイと書くが、トゥは日本語にない。
fan: ファン 
whisky: ウィスキー
building: ビルジング 
singer: シンガー

上の5語は日本語になっていると言っても差し支えない英語である。
しかし、これらはカナで表せない。

この英語はイギリスの言葉としての英語ではない。アメリカの米語でもない。

エスペラントとしての英語である。世界共通語としての英語である。

その英語に「あいうえお」の五十音は時代遅れである。

ヱ、ゑ、ヰ、ゐなどを復活させ、to、fi、diなどのために新しくカタカナ、ひら仮名を考案すればいくらかはマシになるかも知れないが、いくらかでは不十分である。(ヂ、ぢをdiとして復活させることはできようが)

漢字はいらない。カナもかなもいらない。

ローマ字があるではないか。

入門ラテン語の第1ページを見て、いかに日本語とローマ字の相性がいいかがすぐ分かった。

ローマ字五十音は次回で。

Wikipedia ― Free Textと双璧をなすもの

分かればいい程度の物や事はColor Oxfordで済ますが、少し詳しく知りたい時は、Wikipediaを頼ることにしている。

名作の無料ダウンロードとこのWikipediaの恩恵は測り知れない。

いい時代になったものだ。

先月、Donationの勧誘が画面に出てきた。かなり頻繁に世話になっている手前、喜んで応じた。

最低300円、次が500円、それから上に続く。

清貧(または赤貧)の隠居には300円が精一杯。ところがクリックミスを(いつもネット碁でやっているように)してしまい、300円が2回になってしまった。

合計600円也。

今、Wilkipediaを開く度に、この600円が先に来て、内容に集中するまでにしばらくかかっている。

付:
低速モード(月200Mを超えると)には写真はあまり歓迎されません。



COLOR OXFORD はありがたい

 今日の英語の復習(第101回裏)に、OPOSSUMとVULTUREがある。

いつもはCollinsであるが、長いだけでさっぱり分からない。それで、OALDを載せることにした。

少し心残りなので、ここで取り上げる。

Opossum

Collins: any thick-furred marsupial, esp Didelphis mulspialis (common opossum), of the family Didelphiadae of S North, Central America, having an elongated snout and a hairless prehensile tail. Sometimes (informal) shortened to: possum

OALD: kinds of small American animal that lives in trees.


Vulture

Collins: any of various very large diurnum birds of prey of the genera Neophron, Gyps, Gypaetus, etc, of Africa, Asia, and warm parts of Europe, typically having broad wings and soaring flight and feeding on carrion: family Accipitridae (hawks)

OALD: large bird, usu with head and neck almost bare of feathers, that lives on the flesh of dead animals.

Collinsに比べてなんと簡潔はことよ。

しかし、簡潔と簡明とは別物。

このOALDの説明でどういう姿の生き物かを頭に描ける者は60億人に一人といまい。

描けないことを承知の上でOALDは記述しているのである。事典の領域であることを意味しているのである。

私はここにOALD編纂者の聡明さを認める。

物は図解によるべし。

英語の世界に没入していながら、花の名、鳥の名、病気の名などを英和辞典に頼るのは日和見主義である。

形のあるものは図解が辞書である、辞典である。なんだ日本語ではこれか、こういうことは後で分かればいいし、また分かっても分からなくても、いい。

英語の名前が物の形に直結しさえすればいいからだ。

付:
1.Color Oxfordは日本の名で、本家はThe New Oxford Illustrated Dictionary (NOID)とのことです。
2.英語の復習は、今後Collinsの英文で解りにくい名詞はOALDを原則といたします。

(Opossum)

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