老いの一筆

Fair is foul, and foul is fair – Macbeth Act 1 SceneⅠ・・・きれいはきたない、きたないはきれい

英語の微弱電流

裏山で昼間ヤギのメリーを放牧している間の1時間余りにサマーデッキの横たわって読む本である。

眠たくなれば一眠りするという気楽な読書には、肩のこらない物語が適している。

アラビアンナイト、ロビンソン・クルーソー、ガリバー旅行記、デカメロンと続いて、再び千夜一夜に戻ってきた。1日1夜のペースで3年掛かる。

電流を流し続ければいいのだ。

さて、このアラビアンナイト。

アラビアンナイト版と千夜一夜版では、面白みが格段に違う。

前者は軟弱、後者は剛直。



第327夜 ALI SHAR [FN#254] AND ZUMURRUDの物語の終わりの部分



!"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.


When it was the Three Hundred and Twenty-seventh Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that Zumurrud cried to her lord, Ali Shar, "Durst thou disobey me?: it shall be an ill-omened night for thee! Nay, but it behoveth thee to do my bidding and I will make thee my minion and appoint thee one of my Emirs." Asked Ali Shar, "And in what must I do thy bidding, O King of the age?" and she answered, "Doff thy trousers and lie down on thy face." Quoth he, "That is a thing in my life I never did; and if thou force me thereto, verily I will accuse thee thereof before Allah on Resurrection-day. Take everything thou hast given me and let me go from thy city." And he wept and lamented; but she said, "Doff thy trousers and lie down on thy face, or I will strike off thy head." So he did as she bade him and she mounted upon his back; and he felt what was softer than silk and smoother than cream and said in himself, "Of a truth, this King is nicer than all the women!" Now for a time she abode on his back, then she turned over on the bed, and he said to himself, "Praised be Allah! It seemeth his yard is not standing." Then said she, "O Ali, it is of the wont of my prickle that it standeth not, except they rub it with their hands; so, come, rub it with thy hand, till it be at stand, else will I slay thee." So saying, she lay down on her back and taking his hand, set it to her parts, and he found these same parts softer than silk; white, plumply-rounded, protuberant, resembling for heat the hot room of the bath or the heart of a lover whom love-longing hath wasted. Quoth Ali in himself, "Verily, our King hath a coynte; this is indeed a wonder of wonders!" And lust get hold on him and his yard rose and stood upright to the utmost of its height; which when Zumurrud saw, she burst out laughing and said to him, "O my lord, all this happeneth and yet thou knowest me not!" He asked "And who art thou, O King?"; and she answered, "I am thy slave-girl Zumurrud." Now whenas he knew this and was certified that she was indeed his very slave-girl, Zumurrud, he kissed her and embraced her and threw himself upon her as the lion upon the lamb. Then he sheathed his steel rod in her scabbard and ceased not to play the porter at her door and the preacher in her pulpit and the priest [FN#323] at her prayer niche, whilst she with him ceased not from inclination and prostration and rising up and sitting down, accompanying her ejaculations of praise and of "Glory to Allah!" with passionate movements and wrigglings and claspings of his member [FN#324] and other amorous gestures, till the two little eunuchs heard the noise. So they came and peeping from behind the curtains saw the King lying on his back and upon him Ali Shar, thrusting and slashing whilst she puffed and blew and wriggled. Quoth they, "Verily, this be no man's wriggle: belike this King is a woman.'' [FN#325] But they concealed their affair and discovered it to none. And when the morrow came, Zumurrud summoned all the troops and the lords of the realm and said to them, "I am minded to journey to this man's country; so choose you a viceroy, who shall rule over you till I return to you." And they answered, "We hear and we obey." Then she applied herself to making ready the wants of the way, to wit provaunt and provender, monies and rarities for presents, camels and mules and so forth; after which she set out from her city with Ali Shar, and they ceased not faring on, till they arrived at his native place, where he entered his house and gave many gifts to his friends and alms and largesse to the poor. And Allah vouchsafed him children by her, and they both lived the gladdest and happiest of lives, till there came to them the Destroyer of delights and the Severer of societies and the Garnerer of graves. And glorified be He the Eternal without cease, and praised be He in every case! And amongst other tales they tell one of


THE LOVES OF JUBAYR BIN UMAYR AND THE LADY BUDUR.


It is related that the Commander of the Faithful, Harun al-Rashid was uneasy [FN#326] one night and could not sleep; so that he ceased not to toss from side to side for very restlessness, till, growing weary of this, he called Masrur and said to him, "Ho, Masrur, find me some one who may solace me in this my wakefulness." He answered, "O Prince of True Believers, wilt thou walk in the palace-garden and divert thyself with the sight of its blooms and gaze upon the stars and constellations and note the beauty of their ordinance and the moon among them rising in sheen over the water?" Quoth the Caliph, "O Masrur, my heart inclineth not to aught of this." Quoth he, "O my lord, there are in thy palace three hundred concubines, each of whom hath her separate chamber. Do thou bid all and every retire into her own apartment and then do thou go thy rounds and amuse thyself with gazing on them without their knowledge." The Caliph replied, "O Masrur, the palace is my palace and the girls are my property: furthermore my soul inclineth not to aught of this." Then Masrur rejoined, "O my lord, summon the doctors of law and religion and the sages of science and poets, and bid them contend before thee in argument and disputation and recite to thee songs and verses and tell thee tales and anecdotes." Replied the Caliph, "My soul inclineth not to aught of this;" and Masrur rejoined, "O my lord, bid pretty boys and the wits and the cup-companions attend thee and solace thee with witty sallies." "O Masrur," ejaculated the Caliph, "indeed my soul inclineth not to aught of this." "Then, O my lord," cried Masrur, "strike off my head;"--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased saying her permitted say.

When it was the Three Hundred and Twenty-eighth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King,~


[FN#323] Arab. "Imám." This is (to a Moslem) a most offensive comparison between prayer and car. cop.

[FN#324] Arab. "Fi zaman-hi," alluding to a peculiarity highly prized by Egyptians; the use of the constrictor vaginF muscles, the sphincter for which Abyssinian women are famous. The "Kabbázah" ( = holder), as she is called, can sit astraddle upon a man and can provoke the venereal-orgasm, not by wriggling and moving but by tightening and loosing the male member with the muscles of her privities, milking it as it were. Consequently the cassenoisette costs treble the money of other concubines. (Arranga-Ranga, p. 127.)

[FN#325] The little eunuchs had evidently studied the Harem.

[FN#326] Lane (ii. 494) relates from Al-Makrizi, that when Khamárawayh, Governor of Egypt (ninth century), suffered from insomnia, his physician ordered a pool of quicksilver 50 by 50 cubits, to be laid out in front of his palace, now the Rumaylah square.



Burton版は、タイトルの下に、

A Plain and Literal Translation of the Arabian Nights Entertainments

と断り書きが載っている。

上を読めば、なるほどliteral に偽りなしと納得できると思う。そして、断り書きを入れた理由も分かると思う。

大場正史の邦訳もBurton版のliteral訳である。

私のようには微弱電流を流す必要のない読者には大場訳の方がお勧めだ。

第30回裏・第31回

第30回裏

exertion  sinewy  exculpate  slattern  wrench   expeditious   yarn   garrulous   saturnine   scald

I have never seen anything so exciting as that, but the first time I went to Algeciras I had an experience that seemed to me far from ordinary. Algeciras was then an untidy, neglected town. I arrived somewhat late at night and went to an inn on the quay. It was rather shabby, but it had a fine view of Gibraltar, solid and matter–of–fact, across the bay. The moon was full. The office was on the first floor, and a slatternly maid, when I asked for a room, took me upstairs. The landlord was playing cards. He seemed little pleased to see me. He looked me up and down, curtly gave me a number, and then, taking no further notice of me, went on with his game.


Now it was not long before the happy news spread here and there that at a reasonable distance from New York was a country, the capital of which had an equable climate and tolerable accommodation, where a woman could release herself, expeditiously and with economy, from the irksome bonds of matrimony.


"Well, you two boys haven't seen one another for a long time. I shall leave you to have a yarn. Teddie will show you your quarters when you want to go to bed."


A favourite dodge to get your story read by the public is to assert that it is true, and then add that Truth is stranger than Fiction. I do not know if the yarn I am anxious for you to read is true; but the Spanish purser of the fruit steamer _El Carrero_ swore to me by the shrine of Santa Guadalupe that he had the facts from the U. S. vice-consul at La Paz--a person who could not possibly have been cognizant of half of them.
*cognizant: (usually foll by of) aware; having knowledge


It was difficult for me to keep a straight face. He was one of the ugliest men I had ever seen. There is sometimes a certain charm in the rubicund and jovial fat man, but this saturnine obesity was repulsive.
*rubicund: of a reddish colour; ruddy; rosy


I could just see in the dimness the outline of a smile flicker for a moment on my host’s heavy, and it seemed to me then, somewhat saturnine face.

  

第31回

301  無駄話 (slang) empty, idle, or boastful talk
    g□s

302  賭場のあのならず者たち an idle mischievous person; rascal
    those s□□□ps in gambling houses

303  ~に深手を負わせる deep wound
    cut a deep g□□h in

304  人目を忍ぶ恋仲 secret; clandestine
    s□□□□□□itious sweethearts

305  派手な飾り showy ornament
    g□□d

306  天候の気まぐれな変化 whim; strange act or idea
    the v□□□□ies of weather

307  木の葉がひらひら舞い落ちた tremble; quiver
    Leaves f□□□□□red down.

308  落ち着きを失う calmness; tranquility; self-possession
    forfeit (or lose) one’s c□□□□□□re

309  堕落した者morally bad; corrupt; perverted
    d□□□□□ed person

310  信頼に足る記述 reliable; genuine; verified
     an a□□□□□□□c portrayal of the past

聊齋誌異 巻之二  陸判(リクハン)

聊齋誌異 巻之二  陸判(リクハン)

また天馬訳に妙な箇所があった。

死体から首が消えているのを見て、夫人が女中をムチ打つ場面である。

「番の致しかたが悪かったので、犬に食われたのでしょう。申しわけありません」と女中が言っている。

夫人がムチを打ちながら、あるいは打ち終えてから、お前たちの「番が悪かったので、犬に喰われたのだ」と叱ったと読むのが自然である。

白話(口語)訳もそうなっている。

手元の原文に「申しわけありません」はない。

今朝の発見である。


先是,吳侍御有女甚美,未嫁而喪二夫,故十九猶未醮也。上元游十王殿,時遊人甚雜,內有無賴賊窺而艷之,遂陰訪居里,乘夜梯入,穴寢門,殺一婢于床下,逼女與淫;女力拒聲喊,賊怒,亦殺之。吳夫人微聞鬧聲,呼婢往視,見尸駭絕。舉家盡起,停尸堂上,置首項側,一門啼號,紛騰終夜。詰旦啟衾,則身在而失其首。遍撻侍女,謂所守不恪,致葬犬腹。侍御告郡。郡嚴限捕賊,三月而罪人弗得。漸有以朱家換頭之異聞吳公者。吳疑之,遣媼探諸其家;入見夫人,駭走以告吳公。公視女尸故存,驚疑無以自決。猜朱以左道殺女,往詰朱。朱曰:「室人夢易其首,實不解其何故;謂仆殺之,則冤也。」吳不信,訟之。收家人鞠之,一如朱言。郡守不能決。朱歸,求計于陸。陸曰:「不難,當使伊女自言之。」吳夜夢女曰:「兒為蘇溪楊大年所賊,無與朱孝廉。彼不艷于其妻,陸 判官取兒頭與之易之,是兒身死而頭生也。願勿相仇。」醒告夫人,所夢同。乃言于官。問,果有楊大年;執而械之,遂伏其罪。吳乃詣朱,請見夫人,由此為翁婿。乃以朱妻首合女尸而葬焉。


天道溫和,可以冷飲
天道(てんき)が溫和(あたゝか)だから,冷飲(ひや)でいゝいよ


文思大進,過眼不忘
文思が進歩し、眼を過(とほ)したものは、忘れないやうになったのである


山荊,予結髮人,下體頗亦不惡,但頭面不甚佳麗
山荊(かない)は,予(ぼく)と結髮(おさない)ときからの夫婦で、體(からだ)は頗亦(まあ)惡くない方だが,頭面(かほ)は甚(あまり)佳麗(うつくし)くないのだ


且自達人觀之,生死一耳,何必生之為樂,死之為悲
それに達人から観れば生も死も一つである。必ず生を樂しとすることも死を悲しとすることもない


兒已成立,家計尚可存活,豈有百歲不拆之鸞鳳耶
兒(むすこ)は已(もう)成人したし、家業も尚(まあ)可存活(くらせるのだ)。百年も拆(わか)れずに居る鸞鳳(ふうふ)あらうぞ


顧子曰:「好為人,勿墮父業。十年後一相見耳。」
子供を顧み、「立派に人になれよ。父の遺業を墮(おと)すのではないぞ。十年後には復(もう)一度相見(あは)う」といふと~


膽欲大而心欲小,智欲圓而行欲方
膽は大ならんことを欲し、心は小ならんことを欲す。智は圓ならんことを欲し、行は方ならんことを欲す。

(和文は柴田天馬訳による)


體=体
惡=悪
觀=観
為=為
樂=楽
兒=児
歲=歳
墮=堕
膽=胆
圓=円

第29回裏・第30回

第29回裏

staunch  flaw   affront  stalk  fastidious  cranky  flamboyant  shifty   fluster   shock
 


Some I have known; they give me assurance of the many, near and far. Hearts of noble strain, intrepid, generous; the clear head, the keen eye; a spirit equal alike to good fortune and to ill. I see the true-born son of England, his vigour and his virtues yet unimpaired. In his blood is the instinct of honour, the scorn of meanness; he cannot suffer his word to be doubted, and his hand will give away all he has rather than profit by a plebeian parsimony. He is frugal only of needless speech. A friend staunch to the death; tender with a grave sweetness to those who claim his love; passionate, beneath stoic seeming, for the causes he holds sacred. A hater of confusion and of idle noise, his place is not where the mob presses; he makes no vaunt of what he has done, no boastful promise of what he will do; when the insensate cry is loud, the counsel of wisdom overborne, he will hold apart, content with plain work that lies nearest to his hand, building, strengthening, whilst others riot in destruction.
*plebeian: 1 of, relating to, or characteristic of the common people, espthose of Rome 2 lacking refinement; vulgar 3 one of the common people; 4 a person who is coarse or lacking discernment
*parsimony: extreme care or reluctance in spending; frugarity; niggardness


By his side a milder form was sometimes to be seen; the pensive gentility of Samuel Salt. They were coevals, and had nothing but that and their benchership in common. In politics Salt was a whig, and Coventry a staunch tory. Many a sarcastic growl did the latter cast out — for Coventry had a rough spinous humour — at the political confederates of his associate, which rebounded from the gentle bosom of the latter like cannon-balls from wool. You could not ruffle Samuel Salt. S. had the reputation of being a very clever man, and of excellent discernment in the chamber practice of the law.
*coeval: 1 of or belonging to the same age or generation 2 a contemporary
*bencher: (Brit)a member of the governing body of one of the Inns of Court, usually a judge or a Queen’s Counsel
*spinous: 1 resembling a spine or thorn 2 having spines or spiny projections 3 another word for spinose


It was like picking up at a village ale-house a two days old newspaper. You have not seen it before, but you resent the stale thing as an affront. This sort of merchandise above all requires a quick return.


A poor man, of all things in the world, should not upbraid an antagonist with poverty. Are there no other topics — as, to tell him his father was hanged — his sister, &c. — without exposing a secret, which should be kept snug between them; and doing an affront to the order to which they have the honour equally to belong? All this while they do not see how the wealthier man stands by and laughs in his sleeve at both.


Pope should be reconciled to him, because men of his profession were commonly ignorant, and of no consequence otherwise; his holiness, enraged at the bishop, struck him with his staff, and told him, it was he that was the blockhead, and affronted the man himself would not offend: the prelate was driven out of the chamber, and Michael Angelo had the Pope's benediction, accompanied with presents. This bishop had fallen into the vulgar error, and was rebuked accordingly.
*prelate: a Church dignitary of high rank, such as cardinal, bishop, or abbot
benediction: 1 an innovation of divine blessing, esp at the end of a Christian religious ceremony 2 a Roman Catholic service in which the congregation is blessed with the sacrament 3 the state of being blessed



第30回

291 何も努力しないで active use of strength, power, etc.; energetic activity
   without any e□□□□□□n

292 筋骨隆々たる背中 muscular; vigorous
   a s□□□□y back

293 言い訳をする to free from blame or guilt; vindicate or exonerate
   e□□□□□□te one’s own shortcomings

294 自堕落な女 a slovenly woman or girl; slut
   s□□□□□□n

295 捻挫する to twist suddenly so as to sprain (a limb)
   w□□□□h one's ankle

296 応急措置 efficient and speedy; prompt
   e□□□□□□ious measures

297 長話をする (informal) to tell a long and often involved story or account
   y□□n about one's past

298 冗漫で退屈な演説 diffuse; bubbling
   a g□□□□□□us and boring speech

299 むっつりした小男 having a gloomy temperament; taciturn
   a s□□□□□□ne little man

300 灼けた大地 to burn or be burned with or as if with hot liquid or steam
   the ground s□□□ded by the hot sun

読書百遍

最近読書勘の衰えがひどくなってきた。

込み入った筋に出遇うと、すぐに立ち止まる。昔だったら、構わず先に進ん行けば、いつの間にかすんなり通ったものだ。

巧みに織り込んである伏線にも気がつかない。昔だったら、「ハハ~ン、何かあるな」と用心したものだ。

愚痴をこぼしても始まらない。

勘の衰えはこれからも進行していくのだ。

そこで私が採用したのが、「読書百遍法」である。

初見は、何が何だかさっぱり掴めないものでも、繰り返し読んでいくと、ぼんやり何かが出てくる。自分なりに納得できれば良し。もうこれ以上繰り返しても、時間の無駄だと諦めた時に、辞書を引く、(手持ちがあれば)和訳も読む。

例を挙げる。

この聊斎志異は400年も前の中国人による作品である。幸いなことに、漢字が使われている。日本で教育を受けた者なら、90%以上は見慣れた字である。

残りの10%が不明でも、クロスワードパズルかジグソーパズルと思えば、苦にならない。


聊斎志異 巻之二

廟鬼

新城諸生王啟後者,方伯中宇公象坤曾孫。見一婦人入室,貌肥黑不揚。笑近坐榻,意甚褻。王拒之,不去。由此坐臥輒見之。而意堅定,終不搖。婦怒,批其頰有聲,而亦不甚痛。婦以帶懸梁上,捽與並縊。王不覺自投梁下,引頸作縊狀。人見其足不履地,挺然立空中,即亦不能死。自是病顛,忽曰:「彼將與我投河矣。」望河狂奔,曳之乃止。如此百端,日常數作,術藥罔效。一日,忽見有武士綰鎖而入,怒叱曰:「樸誠者汝何敢擾!」即縶婦項,自櫺中出。纔至窗外,婦不復人形,目電閃,口血赤如盆。憶城隍廟門中有泥鬼四,絕類其一焉。於是病若失。

以下は常用漢字に指定されていないもの。広漢和は無論のこと、藤堂漢和で調べ上げることができる。

榻・輒・捽・縊・顛・矣・綰・縶・櫺・纔・焉

読書百遍意自ら通ず。


付:
さっぱり通じないことも間々あります。(Every rule has its exceptions.)

土人のどこが悪いというのだ

小学校に入る前。今から70年前のこと。

東京都とは名ばかり、葛飾区堀切は下町兼田舎だった。

戦争ムードの中、どこの家も、子沢山。今の厚生省と同じ、自分たちは知らぬ振りをして、戦争のために産めよ産めよと奨励したのだ。

遊び仲間に不自由しない、喧嘩の相手にも不自由しない。

足の不自由な子供もいた。目が不自由な子供もいた。子供たちはみんな一緒に遊んだ。

喧嘩も日常茶飯事だ。

罵る。

「ちんば!ちんば(びっこたい)!」
「メクラ!メクラ(メガネ)!」
「デ~ブ、デ~ブ、百貫デ~ブ!」

あくる日になるとケロリとして、また一緒に遊ぶ。

仲良く遊んでいる時に、「ちんば」とは言わない、「メクラ」とも言わない。

ちんば、メクラ、びっこなどが相手を貶める言葉であることを知っているからだ。

機動隊員が沖縄人に「土人」と言った。

これで、機動隊員が注意を受けたそうだ。

おかしくないか。

沖縄人と機動隊員が飲み屋で和気あいあいにお互いの苦労を慰め合っている最中に、
「ところで、土人、結婚しているの?」
とやったら、問題(機動隊員の品位に)であるが、お互いに罵り合っている最中なら、何の不都合もない。

だいぶ前から、言葉の「言葉尻」にうるさい文化人が増殖し続けている。この調子だと、近いうちに口喧嘩がなくなってしまうのではなかろうか。

怒りは「喜怒哀楽」にあるように、人間の感性の一つ。罵ることで発散できないとなると、残るのは、「陰湿ないじめ」だけになる。

罵り厳禁の自衛隊員、警察官、教師、他公務員、これらの集団は陰湿ないじめ集団ではないかと、私は疑っている。

売り言葉があれば買い言葉がある。罵倒語ほど活き活きした言葉はない。

土人、クロンボ、カッペ、もやし、結構、結構。

付:メガネも当時は罵倒語。小学校を通じてクラスに一人しかいなかった。「ガリ」も、ののしりに使われななかった。みんな栄養が悪く痩せていたから。

第28回裏・第29回

第28回裏

impudent   demure   excruciating   exegesis   servitude   brace   exigence  expostulation   scathing  exuberant


He saw Edward’s eyes fixed on him and there was in them a flicker of amusement. He blushed scarlet, for it struck him that Jackson was making a fool of him, and then because he felt absurd–and knew there was no reason why he should–he grew angry. Arnold
Jackson was impudent–there was no other word for it–and his callousness, whether assumed or not, was outrageous.


There was a man sitting beside him and he rose as they entered.
‘This is Mr Pryce,’ said the surgeon. ‘He was in charge of the machinery on Mr
Gallagher’s estate.’
Mrs Hamlyn nodded. This was the second–class passenger to whom Gallagher had referred when they had discussed the party which was to be given on Christmas Day. He was a very small man, but sturdy, with a pleasantly impudent countenance and an air of self–assurance.
‘Are you glad to be going home?’ asked Mrs Hamlyn.
‘You bet I am, lady,’ he answered.
The intonation of the few words told Mrs Hamlyn that he was a cockney and, recognizing the cheerful, sensible, good–humoured, and careless type, her heart warmed to him.
‘You’re not Irish?’ she smiled.
‘Not me, miss. London’s my ’ome and I shan’t be sorry to see it again, I can tell
you.’
Mrs Hamlyn never thought it offensive to be called miss.
*miss:卑俗な用法。Pryce がcockneyでかつher heart warmed to him のため気にしなかった。


‘Oh, what a bore that woman is, I shall certainly kill her if she goes on much longer.’ Then he broke into Siegfried’s martial strain. She’s a bore, she’s a bore, she’s a bore. I shall throw her into the sea.’And that of course is what Miss Reid was. She was a crashing, she was a stupendous, she was an excruciating bore. She talked in a steady monotone, and it was no use to interrupt her because then she started again from the beginning. She had an insatiable thirst for information and no casual remark could be thrown across the table without her asking innumerable questions about it. She was a great dreamer and she narrated her dreams at intolerable length. There was no subject upon which she had not something prosy to say.
*Siegfried’s martial strain: (metonyn)
*satiable: capable of being satiated
*prosy: 1 of the nature of or similar to prose 2 dull, tedious, or long-winded


The next morning, as I need hardly say, I awoke with excruciating rheumatic pains of the head and face, from which I had hardly any respite for about twenty days.
*rheumatic: リューマチの rheumatism: any painful disorder of joints, muscles, or connective tissue




第29回

281 揺るぎない忠誠 steady; trustworthy; loyal
   s□□□□□h devotion to one's country

282 非の打ち所のない美しさ defect; fault; crack
    beauty without f□□w

283 王に対する非礼 a deliberate insult; to insult openly or purposely
    an a□□□□□t to the king

284 そっと忍び寄る approach or pursue stealthily
    I watch a lion s□□□k its prey.

285 本の選択にうるさい not easy to please; very critical
    be f□□□□□□ous in the choice of books

286 気難しい老人 ill-tempered; irritable; cross
    a c□□□□y old man

287 社交界の花形 brillant; ornate; flowering
    the f□□□□□□ant idol of the society

288 老獪極まる策士だ 1 given to evasions; artful 2 furtive in character or appearance 3 full of expedients; resourceful
    He is a s□□□□y old fox.

289 すっかり慌てている to make or be confused, nervous, and excited
    be all in a f□□□□□r

290 刈束 a number of sheaves set on end in a field to dry; a pile or stack of unthreshed corn
    s□□□k

大川小学校と14億円

かねてから、私は公務員に公務員損害保険を作れと提唱してきた。

車の運転手が強制保険に掛からなければ、車を運転できないように、国家公務員も地方公務員も強制保険に入らなければ、公務に携われないことにするのだ。

公務員の不注意や怠慢、あるいは過失によって、なんで納税者が肩代わりしなければならないのか。

会社勤めの運転手が、人身事故を起こして、1億円の賠償が求められたとする。雇い主の会社が1億円を払うか。

公務員の雇い主は納税者である。

石巻市民がなんで14億円を払わなければいけないのか。

公務員保険制度がないから、こんな不都合が生じるのである。

親方日の丸の公務員は、どんなに赤字になっても、たっぷり年2回の賞与が約束されている。10%とは言わない、3%でいい。年2回の賞与を強制的に保険に当てるのだ。

14億円を石巻市が払えば、石巻市の財政が14億円分苦しくなる。人口15万人、(それも高齢者が圧倒している)の石巻市、「はい、わかりました。では、明日振込みます」とは応えにくい。

公務員強制保険が制度になっていれば、このような出し惜しみは絶対に起きない。

保険会社は、すばやく対応する。

役人の国民・市民に対する損害事案に作為はない。悪意もない。すべて過失、然り、業務上の過失である。

冬眠前のブログに載せたように覚えているが、もう一度、一筆したためることにした。

付:民間の保険会社でなければいけない。国の管理下の保険会社(例えば独立行政法人)は加害者に甘いのが目に見えているからだ。天下り先を増やすだけだ。

第27回裏・第28回

第27回裏

forfeit  garish   dyspepsia   efficacy  dock  stale   exhilarating   reel   exasperating   deft

‘The three on the four,’ said Mr Kelada.
There is nothing more exasperating when you are playing patience than to be told where to put the card you have turned up before you have had a chance to look for yourself.


The original meaning of hostis is merely stranger, and a stranger who is likewise a foreigner will only by curious exception fail to stir antipathy in the average human being. Add to this that a great number of persons in every country find their delight and their business in exasperating international disrelish, and with what vestige of common sense can one feel surprise that war is ceaselessly talked of, often enough declared. In days gone by, distance and rarity of communication assured peace between many realms.
*hostis: [Latin] (public)enemy; stranger
*disrelish:1 to have a feeling of aversion for; dislike 2 such a feeling
*vestige:1 a small trace, mark, or amount; hint 2 an organ or part of an organism that is a small nonfunctioning remnant of a functional organ in an ancestor


Expression on these subjects was precipitated from E. Rushmore Coglan by the third corner to our table. While Coglan was describing to me the topography along the Siberian Railway the orchestra glided into a medley. The concluding air was "Dixie," and as the exhilarating notes tumbled forth they were almost overpowered by a great clapping of hands from almost every table.
*topography: the study or detailed description of the surface features of a region


It was an ideal spring day, a light blue sky, flecked with little fleecy white clouds drifting across from west to east. The sun was shining very brightly, and yet there was an exhilarating nip in the air, which set an edge to a man's energy. All over the countryside, away to the rolling hills around Aldershot, the little red and grey roofs of the farm-steadings peeped out from amid the light green of the new foliage.
*nip: a frosty or chilly quality; severe frost or cold; a small piece or quantity
*fleck: 1 a small marking or streak; speckle 2 a small particle; speck


Translate any one of these sayings out of the artful metonyme which envelops it, and the trick is apparent. Goodly legs and shoulders of mutton, exhilarating cordials, books, pictures, the opportunities of seeing foreign countries, independence, heart’s ease, a man’s own time to himself, are not muck— however we may be pleased to scandalise with that appellation the faithful metal that provides them for us.
*metonym: a word used in a metonymy. For example the bottle is a metonym for alcoholic drink




第28回

271 訪問客を馬鹿にする生意気な子 impertinent
   an i□□□□□□t boy given to insulting strangers

272 控えめな婦人 affectedly modest or sedate; coy
   a quiet and d□□□□e woman

273 とても耐えられない騒音 causing intense physical or mental pain
   an e□□□□□□ating noise

27 4聖書の解説 explanation, critical analysis of a word, literary passage, etc.
   scriptural e□□□□□□s

275 刑事上の強制労働 slavery; bondage
   penal s□□□□□□de

276 足をふんばるstrengthen; fasten; fix firmly; make tight
   b□□□e one’s feet

277 事態の急迫を認める a situation calling for immediate action or attention
   recognize the e□□□□□□e of the situation

278 思いとどまるよう説得に務めたが
   In spite of my e□□□□□□rations, he insisted on driving me home.

279 その劇についての容赦ない批評 harshly critical; scornful
   a s□□□□□□g review of the play

280 有り余るほどの富 luxuriant; overflowing
   e□□□□□□nt wealth


聊斎志異 「癒」と「卒」

OCRのない時代の文芸作品は、バリエーションが多い。人に好まれれば好まれるほど、人から人へと書写しが枝分かされ、原文と似ても似つかぬ物も出てくることもある。写本家の写し違いが原因かも知れないし、故意の“改作”が原因かも知れない。

今日、その「似ても似つかぬ」好例に、巡り逢えた。

聊斎志異 巻一

賈兒

ネットの無料テキスト

  至夜,母竟安寢,不復奔。心知有異,告父同往驗之,則兩狐斃于亭上,一狐死于草中,喙津津尚有血出。酒瓶猶在,持而搖之,未盡也。父驚問:「何不早告?」曰:「此物最靈,一泄,則彼知之。」翁喜曰:「我兒,討狐之陳平也。」於是父子荷狐歸。見一狐禿尾,刀痕儼然。自是遂安。而婦瘠殊甚,心漸明瞭,但益之嗽,嘔痰輒數升,尋愈。北郭王氏婦,向祟于狐;至是問之,則狐絕而病亦愈。翁由此奇兒,教之騎射。後貴至總戎。


柴田天馬訳

かみさんはやせきってゐたが心はだんだんはっきりしてきた。ただせきがひどくなって、痰をはくと、いく升もでた。やがてしんでしまった。
まへから狐に祟られてゐた北郭の王氏のかみさんも、このごろ、きけば、狐はこなくなって、病気もなほつたさうである。
やがてしんでしまった:(原表現)尋て卒んでしまった。
北郭の王氏のかみさんも、このごろ、きけば、狐はこなくなって、病気もなほつたさうである。:(原表現)北郭の王氏の婦さんも、至是、問之則、狐は絶なくなって、病気も癒つたさうである。

天馬訳は非常に優れていて、原書の漢語に極めて忠実である。「癒」を「卒」に言い換えることは絶対にない。

白話体(口語訳)をネットで調べたら、やはり「不久就死了」(ほどなく死んだ)とあった。天馬訳はこの系列に拠ったのである。

「治る」と「死ぬ」。これほどの違いは「天と地」、「月とスッポン」の比ではない。

無論、「治る」が正しい。則狐絕而病亦愈の「亦」が示している。亦は、「また・すべて」の意である。

かみさんが死んで、王氏のかみさんが治ったのなら、「而」や「却」が「亦」の代わりに入っているのではないか。

治った王氏のかみさんを持ち出すのも唐突である。

聊斎志異は怪奇譚である。正反対の「癒」と「卒」の存在も怪奇またである。

付:
1 聊斎志異(りょうさいしい)17世紀清時代の作品
2 天馬が翻訳した際、不自然に思わなかったとしたら、この私の方が間違っているのかもしれない。

第26回裏・第27回

acidulous  ravage   dysentery  subtle   terse   suck   ripple   supercilious   intimidate  shaky


She was a little shy, but not more shy than Bateman, to whom the whole situation was highly embarrassing, and it did not put him at ease to see this sylph–like thing take a shaker and with a practised hand mix three cocktails.
‘Let us have a kick in them, child,’ said Jackson.
She poured them out and smiling delightfully handed one to each of the men. Bateman flattered himself on his skill in the subtle art of shaking cocktails and he was not a little astonished, on tasting this one, to find that it was excellent. Jackson laughed proudly when he saw his guest’s involuntary look of appreciation.


Harry Oakland was one of Mrs Albert Forrester’s staunchest admirers, and had written a brilliant and subtle essay on her style.


His English friends are in a constant state of embarrassment because they know that he is a humorist of genius, but his humour is so subtle that they do not trust themselves to see the point when it comes and laugh at the right place.


The leaves were slender and fragile, half gold with autumn, half green, but so tenuous that the dark branches made a pattern of subtle beauty against the sky.


"Here is the first notice which I can find. It is in the personal column of the Morning Post, and dates, as you see, some weeks back: 'A marriage has been arranged,' it says, 'and will, if rumour is correct, very shortly take place, between Lord Robert St. Simon, second son of the Duke of Balmoral, and Miss Hatty Doran, the only daughter of Aloysius Doran. Esq., of San Francisco, Cal., U.S.A.' That is all."
"Terse and to the point," remarked Holmes, stretching his long, thin legs towards the fire.


I know a gentleman who amassed a considerable fortune (so as to be able to keep his carriage) by printing nothing but lottery placards and handbills of a colossal size. Another friend of mine (of no mean talents) was applied to (as a snug thing in the way of business) to write regular lottery puffs for a large house in the city, and on having a parcel of samples returned on his hands as done in too severe and terse a style, complained quaintly enough, _'That modest merit never could succeed!'_ Even Lord Byron, as he tells us, has been accused of writing lottery-puffs. There are various ways of playing one's-self off before the public, and keeping one's name alive. The newspapers, the lamp-posts, the walls of empty houses, the shutters of windows, the blank covers of magazines and reviews, are open to every one. I have heard of a man of literary celebrity sitting in his study writing letters of remonstrance to himself, on the gross defects of a plan of education he had just published, and which remained unsold on the bookseller's counter.
*handbill:a small printed notice for distribution by hand
*lamp-post:a post supporting a lamp, esp in street




第27回

261 市民権の剥奪 a fine; penalty
   the f□□□□□t of civil rights

262 けばけばしい壁紙 crudely tastelessly coloful; too bright or gaudy
   a g□□□□h wallpaper

263 消化不良 impaired digestion; indigestion
   d□□□□□□ia

264 非常によく効く薬 power to produce effects or intended results
   a remedy of great e□□□□□□y

265 尾の端を切り取る to cut off the end of a tail,etc.
   d□□k a tail

266 腐りかけの肉 (esp of food) hard, musty, or dry from being kept long
   s□□□e meat

267 賑やかで浮き浮きするような情景 to make cheerful, merry, or lively
   a busy, e□□□□□□ating scene

268 二歩後ろによろめく to sway, esp under the shock of a blow or through dizziness or drunkenness
   r□□l two steps back or backward

269 喧嘩をひどくするだけの愚かな言葉 to make more intense or sharp
   foolish words e□□□□□□ating a quarrel

270 手先が器用だった skilfull; dexterous
   He had the d□□t hands.


千夜一夜はとても面白いしためになる

一年前に訳者知らずの全4巻を読了したが、この前、Burton版をネットで見つけたので、再読している。

英語の復習の例文にしては少し長いが、難しい単語がないので、気分転換にいかが。


ALI SHAR [FN#254] AND ZUMURRUD.


There lived once in the days of yore and the good old times long gone before, in the land of Khorasan, a merchant called Majd al-Dín, who had great wealth and many slaves and servants, white and black, young and old; but he had not been blessed with a child until he reached the age of threescore, when Almighty Allah vouchsafed him a son, whom he named Alí Shár. The boy grew up like the moon on the night of fulness; and when he came to man's estate and was endowed with all kinds of perfections, his father fell sick of a death-malady and, calling his son to him, said, "O my son, the fated hour of my decease is at hand, and I desire to give thee my last injunctions." He asked, "And what are they, O my father?"; and he answered, "O my son, I charge thee, be not over-familiar with any [FN#255] and eschew what leadeth to evil and mischief. Beware lest thou sit in company with the wicked; for he is like the blacksmith; if his fire burn thee not, his smoke shall bother thee: and how excellent is the saying of the poet, [FN#256]

'In thy whole world there is not one,
Whose friendship thou may'st count upon,
Nor plighted faith that will stand true,
When times go hard, and hopes are few.
Then live apart and dwell alone,
Nor make a prop of any one,
I've given a gift in that I've said,
Will stand thy friend in every stead:'

And what another saith,

'Men are a hidden malady; * Rely not on the sham in them:
For perfidy and treachery * Thou'lt find, if thou examine them.'

And yet a third saith,

'Converse with men hath scanty weal, except * To while away the time in chat and prate:
Then shun their intimacy, save it be * To win thee lore, or better thine estate.'

And a fourth saith,

'If a sharp-witted wight e'er tried mankind, * I've eaten that which only tasted he: [FN#257]
Their amity proved naught but wile and guile, * Their faith I found was but hypocrisy.' "

Quoth Ali, "O my father, I have heard thee and I will obey thee what more shall I do?" Quoth he, "Do good whereas thou art able; be ever kind and courteous to men and regard as riches every occasion of doing a good turn; for a design is not always easily carried out; and how well saith the poet,

"Tis not at every time and tide unstable, * We can do kindly acts and charitable:
When thou art able hasten thee to act, * Lest thine endeavour prove anon unable!'"

Said Ali, "I have heard thee and I will obey thee."--And Shahrazad perceived the dawn of day and ceased to say her permitted say.


When it was the Three Hundred and Ninth Night,

She said, It hath reached me, O auspicious King, that the youth replied, "I have heard thee and I will obey thee; what more?" And his sire continued, "Be thou, O my son, mindful of Allah, so shall He be mindful of thee. Ward thy wealth and waste it not; for an thou do, thou wilt come to want the least of mankind. Know that the measure of a man's worth is according to that which his right hand hendeth: and how well saith the poet, [FN#258]

'When fails my wealth no friend will deign befriend, * And when it waxeth all men friendship show:
How many a foe for wealth became my friend, * Wealth lost, how many a friend became a foe!'"

Asked Ali, "What more?" And Majd al-Din answered, "O my son, take counsel of those who are older than thou and hasten not to do thy heart's desire. Have compassion on those who are below thee, so shall those who are above thee have compassion on thee; and oppress none, lest Allah empower one who shall oppress thee. How well saith the poet,

'Add other wit to thy wit, counsel craving, * For man's true course hides not from minds of two
Man is a mirror which but shows his face, * And by two mirrors he his back shall view.'

And as saith another, [FN#259]

'Act on sure grounds, nor hurry fast,
To gain the purpose that thou hast
And be thou kindly to all men
So kindly thou'lt be called again;
For not a deed the hand can try,
Save 'neath the hand of God on high,
Nor tyrant harsh work tyranny,
Uncrushed by tyrant harsh as he.'

And as saith yet another, [FN#260]

'Tyrannize not, if thou hast the power to do so; for the tyrannical-is in danger of revenges.
Thine eye will sleep while the oppressed, wakeful, will call down curses on thee, and God's eye sleepeth not.'

Beware of wine-bibbing, for drink is the root of all evil: it doeth away the reason and bringeth to contempt whoso useth it; and how well saith the poet,

'By Allah, wine shall not disturb me, while my soul * Join body, nor while speech the words of me explain:
No day will I be thralled to wine-skin cooled by breeze [FN#261] * Nor choose a friend save those who are of cups unfair.'

This, then, is my charge to thee; bear it before thine eyes, and Allah stand to thee in my stead." Then he swooned away and kept silent awhile; and, when he came to himself, he besought pardon of Allah and pronounced the profession of the Faith, and was admitted to the mercy of the Almighty. So his son wept and lamented for him and presently made proper preparation for his burial; great and small walked in his funeral-procession and Koran readers recited Holy Writ about his bier; nor did Ali Shar omit aught of what was due to the dead. Then they prayed over him and committed him to the dust and wrote these two couplets upon his tomb,

'Thou west create of dust and cam'st to life, * And learned'st in eloquence to place thy trust;
Anon, to dust returning, thou becamest * A corpse, as though ne'er taken from the dust."

Now his son Ali Shar grieved for him with sore grief and mourned him with the ceremonies usual among men of note; nor did he cease to weep the loss of his father till his mother died also, not long afterwards, when he did with her as he had done with his sire. Then he sat in the shop, selling and buying and consorting with none of Almighty Allah's creatures, in accordance with his father's injunction. This wise he continued to do for a year, at the end of which time there came in to him by craft certain whoreson fellows and consorted with him, till he turned after their example to lewdness and swerved from the way of righteousness, drinking wine in flowing bowls and frequenting fair women night and day; for he said to himself, "Of a truth my father amassed this wealth for me, and if I spend it not, to whom shall I leave it? By Allah, I will not do save as saith the poet,

'An through the whole of life * Thou gett'st and gain'st for self;
Say, when shalt thou enjoy * Thy gains and gotten pelf?'"


[FN#254] Lane (ii. 435) ill-advisedly writes "Sher," as "the word is evidently Persian signifying a Lion." But this is only in the debased Indian dialect, a Persian, especially a Shirazi, pronounces "Shír." And this is how it is written in the Bresl. Edit., vii. 262. "Shár" is evidently a fancy name, possibly suggested by the dynastic name of the Ghurjistan or Georgian Princes.

[FN#255] Again old experience, which has learned at a heavy cost how many a goodly apple is rotten at the core.

[FN#256] This couplet has occurred in Night xxi. I give Torrens (p. 206) by way of specimen.

[FN#257] Arab. "Záka" = merely tasting a thing which may be sweet with a bitter after-flavour

[FN#258] This tetraseich was in Night xxx. with a difference.

[FN#259] The lines have occurred in Night xxx. I quote Torrens, p. 311.

[FN#260] This tetrastich is in Night clxix. I borrow from Lane (ii. 62).

[FN#261] The rude but effective refrigerator of the desert Arab who hangs his water-skin to the branch of a tree and allows it to swing in the wind.

この後の展開は、ネットのfree textで楽しむことになる。


父親の息子に対する思いは、いずこも同じ。

ハムレットの第1幕第3場。 Poloniusが息子のLaertes語っている。
Lord Polonius. Yet here, Laertes! aboard, aboard, for shame!
The wind sits in the shoulder of your sail,
And you are stay’d for. There; my blessing with thee!
And these few precepts in thy memory
See thou character. Give thy thoughts no tongue,
Nor any unproportioned thought his act.
Be thou familiar, but by no means vulgar.
Those friends thou hast, and their adoption tried,
Grapple them to thy soul with hoops of steel;
But do not dull thy palm with entertainment
Of each new-hatch’d, unfledged comrade. Beware
Of entrance to a quarrel, but being in,
Bear’t that the opposed may beware of thee.
Give every man thy ear, but few thy voice;
Take each man’s censure, but reserve thy judgment.
Costly thy habit as thy purse can buy,
But not express’d in fancy; rich, not gaudy;
For the apparel oft proclaims the man,
And they in France of the best rank and station
Are of a most select and generous chief in that.
Neither a borrower nor a lender be;
For loan oft loses both itself and friend,
And borrowing dulls the edge of husbandry.
This above all: to thine ownself be true,
And it must follow, as the night the day,
Thou canst not then be false to any man.
Farewell: my blessing season this in thee!
Laertes. Most humbly do I take my leave, my lord.

付:
正式名
The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night – Richard F. Burton
The Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark – William Shakespeare

換喩・転喩・提喩

換喩・転喩・提喩

換喩 広辞苑記載なし
転喩 同上
提喩 同上
広辞苑に記載されていないのはどういうことか。手持ちは第四版1991年第1刷。その後の新語なのだろうか。


換喩 中日大辞典記載なし
転喩 同上
提喩 同上


換喩 現代漢語詞典記載なし
転喩 同上
提喩 同上


換喩 藤堂漢和記載なし
転喩 同上
提喩 同上


換喩 広漢和記載なし
転喩 同上
提喩 同上
広漢和は昭和五十七年の初版。これにも出ていない。


スーパー大辞林 (シャープ電子辞書PW-AC30)
換喩 有り
転喩 無し
提喩 有り


広漢和で「喩」を引いてみた。

暗喩 あんゆ 比喩法の一。物事を他にたとえていうとき、「ごとし」「似たり」などのたとえの表現を用いないで、直接にいう法。唐の韓愈の「雑説」の「天下に馬なし」の馬は「人材」にたとえられる類。⇔直喩

慰喩 いゆ なぐさめさとす。

引喩 いんゆ たとえをひく。前例を引く。

隠喩 いんゆ 比喩法の一。たとえの形式をとらない修辞法。美人の肌を「雪の肌」、鬢に白髪を生ずることを「鬢に霜を置く」と表現する類。⇔明喩

譬喩 ひゆ たとえる。また、たとえ。

訓喩 くんゆ 教えさとす。また、その教え。

直喩 ちょくゆ 直接に、二つの事物を比較する修辞法。⇔隠喩

比喩 ひゆ たとえる。また、たとえ。

呴喩 くゆ 表面だけ顔色をやわらげる。 

風喩 ふうゆ 遠まわしにさとすこと。

明喩   (喩に記載されていながら、出ていない。おかしくないか)

換喩、転喩、提喩の3語を私は知らなかった。慰喩、呴喩、風喩も初めて。勉強になった。

朝から昼まで半日かけて調べたのがこの結果。ネットを開いたら、これら3語しっかり出ている。かけた時間は数秒。私は辞書をパズルとして楽しむからいいようなものを、現役諸兄にはそんなヒマはなかろう。冊子辞書からネット辞書に鞍替えするのもうべなるかな。



metonymy 換喩

metonymy 換喩

a figure of speech that consists in using the name of one thing for that of something else with which it is associated (as in “spent the evening reading Shakespeare”, “lands belonging to the crown”, “demanded action by City Hall”," ogling the heavily mascaraed skirt at the next table”: use of one word for another that it may be expected to suggest – compare TROPE
語源の説明有り
(WTID)

A figure in which the name of an attribute or adjunct is substituted for that of the thing meant; e.g. sceptre for for authority.
語源の説明有り
(SOD)

the substitution of a word referring to an attribute for the thing that is meant, as for example the use of the crown to refer to a monarch.
語源の説明有り
(Collins)

(修辞)換喩,転喩:1つのものの名前がある連想によって他のものの代わりになる比喩(以下、詳しすぎて略す)
(RH)

(修辞)換喩,転喩《あるものを表すのにその属性またはそれと密接な関係のあるもので表現する技巧;原因で結果を,容器で内容を表すなど:例:the crown=king/the bottle=drink,wine/fur and feather=beasts and birds; cf. synecdoche》
(新英和)

(修辞)換喩,メトニミー《物事の隣接性に基づく比喩;the Presidentの意味でthe White Houseを用いるなど、cf. synecdoche》
(ジーニアス)

〔修〕換喩《kingの代わりにcrownを用いるなど;cf. SYNECDOCHE》
(リーダーズ)

〔修〕換喩(かんゆ), 転喩 [あるものをその特質・特性を示す語によって表す方法. 例えばcrownでking, the cradle でchildhoodを表すようなもの](→synecdoche)
(中辞典)

比較せよとあるので、synecdoche をみると、(修辞)提喩。

OALD, LDCE, Wisdom, Super Anchor 記載無し

第25回裏・第26回

第25回裏

budge   domicile   cross   equable   convulse   exemplary  drudge   dud   cupidity  agile


There was a pier-glass between the windows of the room. Perhaps you have seen a pier-glass in an $8 flat. A very thin and very agile person may, by observing his reflection in a rapid sequence of longitudinal strips, obtain a fairly accurate conception of his looks. Della, being slender, had mastered the art.
*pier-glass: a tall narrow mirror, usually one of a pair or set, designed to hang on the wall between windows, usually above a pier table
*longitudinal: 1 of or relating to longitude or length 2 placed or extended lengthways


And then she danced a fluttering, fantastic dance, so agile and light and mazy in her steps that the other three members of the Carroll Comedy Company broke into applause at the art of it.


At first, looking upon himself as a dying man, he asked only to look at her, and occasionally hear her speak, and his love gave him a wonderful happiness. He exulted in its purity. He wanted nothing from her but the opportunity to weave around her graceful person a web of beautiful fancies. But the open air, the equable temperature, the rest, the simple fare, began to have an unexpected effect on his health.


The story of his swallowing opium pills to keep him lively upon the first night of a certain tragedy, we may presume to be a piece of retaliatory pleasantry on the part of the suffering author. But, indeed, John had the art of diffusing a complacent equable dulness (which you knew not where to quarrel with) over a piece which he did not like, beyond any of his contemporaries.
*retaliatory: adj. retaliate: To requite, repay in kind, make return for:a. kindness, etc. b.injury, ill-treatment, etc.(SOD)
*pleasantry: an agreeable or amusing remark, often one made in order to be polite 2 an agreeably humorous manner or style 3 (rare) enjoyment; pleasantness


So it is that Sir Joshua's theory seems to rest on an inclined plane, and is always glad of an excuse to slide, from the severity of truth and nature, into the milder and more equable regions of insipidity and inanity; I am sorry to say so, but so it appears to me.
*inanity: 1 lack of intelligence or imagination; senselessness; silliness 2 a senseless action, remark, etc 3 an archaic word for emptiness


Now it was not long before the happy news spread here and there that at a reasonable distance from New York was a country, the capital of which had an equable climate and tolerable accommodation, where a woman could release herself, expeditiously and with economy, from the irksome bonds of matrimony. The fact that the operation could be performed without the husband’s knowledge saved her from those preliminary and acrimonious discussions that are so wearing to the nerves. Every woman knows that however much a man may argue about a proposition he will generally accept a fact with resignation.


She was jealous not only of the women I knew, but of my friends, my cat, and my books. On one occasion in my absence she gave away a coat of mine merely because I liked none of my coats so well. But I am of an equable temperament. I will not deny that she bored me, but I accepted her acrimonious disposition as an act of God and no more thought of rebelling against it than I would against bad weather or a cold in the head. I denied her accusations as long as it was possible to deny them, and when it was impossible I shrugged my shoulders and smoked a cigarette.




第26回

251 少し酸っぱいsomewhat sour in taste or manner
     a□□□□□□us

252 暴風雨の猛威 destructive action
    the r□□□□e of the elements

253 下痢
   d□□□□□□ry

254 ほのかに漂う香水の香り not immediately obvious or comprehensible
   a s□□□le odor of perfume

255 簡明な批評 neatly or effectively concise
   a t□□□e review of the novel

256 吸う to draw (a liquid or other substance) into the mouth by creating a partial vacuum in the mouth; to draw in (fluid, etc) by or as if by a similar action
   plants s□□k moisture from the soil

257 さざ波を立てる small wave; ruffle
   cause a r□□□□e on the water

258 上唇を高慢に歪めた様 displaying arrogant pride, scorn, or indifference
   a s□□□□□□lious curl of the upper lip

259  人を脅して黙らせる inspire with fear; to make timid or frightened
    i□□□□□□ate a person into silence

260 ぐらぐらするテーブル tending to shake or tremble
   a s□□□y table

日本将棋連盟・・・貧すれば鈍する

三浦九段がスマホでカンニングした。周囲からそう言われて、本人が自発的に挑戦権を返上した。

これが事件のすべてである。

カンニング経験者から見ると、とても信じられないことだ。

三浦九段は超一流棋士。コンピューターに頼ったり、アドバイスを受けるのは、コンピューターよりはるか劣る実力の棋士である。自分とたいして違わない相手の答案を写す生徒はいない。

ちょくちょく席を外したのは異常だと言うが、それは他人が感じるのであって、周りがとやかく言う事ではない。

指し手の90%がコンピューターと同じであると言う。コンピューターが最善手を示すのなら、最善手を指した人間の指し手が同じになっても、何ら不自然でない。

アマ15級の私でも、矢倉に組む時の指し手は、20数手までは、名人、竜王と変わらない。

プロ棋士の指し手が、中盤まで過去の実戦そのままであることに誰もマネだと言わない。

私は、勝局を検証してもカンニングの証明にはならないと思っている。敗局にたどるまでの悪手を検証すべきである。満点の答案をそっくりカンニングしてもカンニングの証拠にならないのと同じである。

三浦九段はパソコン、スマホをこれも自主的に提出した。ご家族のものまで添えてだ。パソコンは、持ち主のプライバシー中のプライバシーである。

公僕たる役人や政治家の領収書でさえプライバシーの名のもと墨で真っ黒に塗りつぶす世間である。人様のカネ(税金)を苦労せず頂戴する彼らに比べ、プロ棋士は自分の力を頼りに生きている。その彼のプライバシーを蹂躙するのだから、下品で野卑な振る舞いである。三浦棋士をそこまで追い詰めた周りの棋士も連盟も下品で野卑である。

棋士総会を非公開で開いたという。公開だろうが非公開だろうが、関係ない。こんなことで総会を開くこと自体が、下品で野卑である。

「カンニングしたければ、したらいい。そんな相手に負ける私なら、私が弱いだけのこと」  

こういって、一笑に付すのが、品格というものだ。

私は、コンピューターに人間が負けたことで、少し神経がおかしくなっているのではないかと思っている。

マラソン選手とサイクリストで、サイクリストが早く着いても、水泳選手がモーターボートに負けても、話題にならない。

なんで将棋だけが、コンピューターに負けたのを話題にしたのか。人間対コンピューター戦は座興である。

スマホ持ち込み禁止、金属探知機でチェック、ガキの使いか。

日本将棋連盟、貧すれば鈍するの見本である。

それから、もっとも重要なことを最後に加えておく。

三浦九段が無実と判明した時は、クロと主張した棋士は永久追放、グレーとコメントした棋士は、10年対局禁止、連盟の理事は総辞職、覚悟することだ。

まことしやかな大義名分をもちだして、うやむやのまま、幕引きを図るのが火を見るよりも明らかだから、ここで一本釘を刺しておく。


付:「下品で野卑」を3回繰り返したのは意識してのこと。下劣兼下等週刊誌レベルだから、他の言葉はもったいない。

あるカンニング常習者の告白

私はカンニングでは二つ苦い経験がある。

一つ目は、小学6年の国語の試験。

前の日に風邪で休んだため、自動詞と他動詞の違いを聞けなかった。それが試験出たため、勘を頼りに、似たもの同士をまとめて、他動詞と自動詞を分けて答えとした。前の女の子が提出前に、「あたしと違う」と私の答案をみて話しかけてきた。その女の子は、クラスで中位で、いつもなら全く相手にしない。こちらは白紙、向こうは曲がりなりにも授業を受けている。

私は、慌てて、全部書き換えた。

結果は「あたしと違う」方が間違いで私の勘が正しかった。本来100点を取れたのが、このため92点。それでも、クラスで一番と先生が発表してくれた。

しかし、満点と92点では格が違う。

前の席の女の子を怨むのは筋違い、あの時、書き直なければよかったものを、と自分を責めた。

二つ目は、危うく退学処分になるところのカンニングである。

外語の中国語科は、毎回授業前に前回の生詞(初めて出る単語)の簡単な試験があった。同じ留年組みの気安さから、毎回隣の席の彼の答案を書き写した。数ヶ月は続いたろうか、ある日、教授(新人の助教授)が、教室に入ってくるなり、「このクラスにカンニングする者がいる。退学処分にする。それから延々とカンニングが悪いことを語り、諭し続けた。カンニングに無関係な学生には迷惑な話だけのことで、ただの暇つぶしだったが、私は青くなった。名指しこそしなかったが、教授は私に向かって怒っているのだ。締めくくりは、再度カンニングしたら、即刻処分にする、と譲ってくれた。

その日の答案は、ほとんど白紙でバレバレ。

放課後、床屋に行ったら、髭剃りの最中に右手をあげて、親指を深く切ってしまった。バチが当たったのだろう。今なおうずく。

この二つの事件以降、私は自慢じゃないが、意識的カンニングはしていない。

カンニングして100点を取っても、優をとっても、空しいことを「悟った」からである。と言いたい所だが、単にバレた時に恥をかくのが嫌だからである。

今、将棋界は、カンニングで吹き荒れている。超一流の選手がカンニングするだろうか。

附:Confessions of an English Opium Eater (1821)「ある阿片常習者の告白」Thomas de Quicey 読むのに苦労しました

英語の復習 第24回裏・第25回

第24回裏

whiz  anesthesia   drab  devoid  dander  anemia  chafe   disputable   ferret  disputatious


For the last half of that midwinter day my feet and legs were devoid of feeling.


But the cost of nourishing foxes is the least evil connected with the keeping of them. Foxes have no fixed code of ethics, and have proved themselves untrustworthy servants. They may initiate and long maintain the prosperity of some family; but should some grave misfortune fall upon that family in spite of the efforts of its seventy-five invisible retainers, then these will suddenly flee away, taking all the valuables of the household along with them. And all the fine gifts that foxes bring to their masters are things which have been stolen from somebody else. It is therefore extremely immoral to keep foxes. It is also dangerous for the public peace, inasmuch as a fox, being a goblin, and devoid of human susceptibilities, will not take certain precautions. He may steal the next-door neighbour's purse by night and lay it at his own master's threshold, so that if the next-door neighbour happens to get up first and see it there is sure to be a row.
*goblin: (in folklore) a small grotesque supernatural creature, regarded as malevolent towards human beings


The English have never (at all events, for some two centuries past) inclined to the purely ceremonial or mirthful forms of sociability; but as regards every prime interest of the community--health and comfort, well-being of body and of soul--their social instinct is supreme.Yet it is so difficult to reconcile this indisputable fact with that other fact, no less obvious, that your common Englishman seems to have no geniality. From the one point of view, I admire and laud my fellow countryman; from the other, I heartily dislike him and wish to see as little of him as possible. One is wont to think of the English as a genial folk. Have they lost in this respect? Has the century of science and money-making sensibly affected the national character? I think always of my experience at the English inn, where it is impossible not to feel a brutal indifference to the humane features of life; where food is bolted without attention, liquor swallowed out of mere habit, where even good-natured accost is a thing so rare as to be remarkable.
*wont: accustomed (to doing something)
*bolt: (transitive)to eat hurridly

She watched him whenever they were at Rosings, and whenever he came to Hunsford; but without much success. He certainly looked at her friend a great deal, but the expression of that look was disputable. It was an earnest, steadfast gaze, but she often doubted whether there were much admiration in it, and sometimes it seemed nothing but absence of mind.

* は Collins English Dictionary Complete & unabridged New Edition Seventh Edition 2005 による


第25回

241 どうしても出てこなかった move slightly; begin to move
   The words refused to b□□□e.

242 本籍 a customary or permanent dwelling place; in law, one’s official or legalresidence
   one's d□□□□□□e by birth

243 人の意思に逆らう thwart; oppose; go counter to
   c□□□s a person's will

244 均一な運動 uniform; tranquil; not easily disturbed
    an e□□□□□e movement

245 怒りに身を震わす to shake or disturb violently
   be c□□□□□□ed with anger

246 模範的人物だった serving as a model or example
   He was of e□□□□□□□y character.

247 決まりきった毎日の仕事 routine nad boring task
   a daily d□□□□e

248 どうもヘマをやったようだね a person or thing that fails or is ineffectual
   I guess I turned out to be the d□d.

249 貪欲 greed esp for money or property
    c□□□□□□y

250身軽な跳躍 quick and easy of movement
   an a□□□e leap


答えと例文は次回のお楽しみ

英語の復習 第23回裏・第24回

第23回裏

wisp   bolt  waggle  distraught  stiff  exhaustion  crabbed  stank  despond   dig


Susie took a certain pride in her common sense, and it was humiliating to find that her nerves could be so distraught. She was worried and unhappy. It had not been easy to take Margaret back to her bosom as if nothing had happened. Susie was human; and, though she did ten times more than could be expected of her, she could not resist a feeling of irritation that Arthur sacrificed her so calmly. He had no room for other thoughts, and it seemed quite natural to him that she should devote herself entirely to Margaret's welfare.


He was tired and ill, and his nerves were shaken. On a sudden the anger which had given him a sort of strength left him, and he was filled with despondency. It was as though water and not blood ran through his veins; his heart sank and his knees seemed to give way.


"It's very kind of you to say so. I should like to ask one question, Miss Clibborn. Have you any objection to me personally?"
"Oh, no!" cried Mary. "How can you suggest such a thing? I have the highest respect and esteem for you, Mr. Dryland. I can never forget the great compliment you have paid me. I shall always think of you as the best friend I have."
"Can you say nothing more to me than that?" asked the curate, despondently. Mary stretched out her hand. "I will be a sister to you."
"Oh, Miss Clibborn, how sad it is to think that your affections should be unrequited. Why am I not Captain Parsons? Miss Clibborn, can you give me no hope?"
"I should not be acting rightly towards you if I did not tell you at once that so long as Captain Parsons lives, my love for him can never alter."


She represented to her sister as forcibly as possible what she felt on the subject, and had soon the pleasure of seeing its happy effect. Jane’s temper was not desponding, and she was gradually led to hope, though the diffidence of affection sometimes overcame the hope, that Bingley would return to Netherfield and answer every wish of her heart.
*diffident: lacking self-confidence; timid; shy 〉diffidence n.




第24回

231 ブンブン唸りながら飛んでいった to make or cause to make a loud humming or buzzing sound
   The angry hornets w□□□zed away in a cloud.


232 感覚麻痺 a partial or total loss of the sense of pain or touch
    a□□□□□□sia

233 退屈で生気のない話題dull; colorless; cheerless
    a d□□b and lifeless subject

234 悪意がない empty, void, destitute; entirely without (SOD)
    d□□□□d of malice

235 癇癪を起こしている anger; temper
    You’re getting your d□□□□r up over trifles.

236 著書に生気がない lack of enough blood
    His writing suffers from a□□□□a.

237 磨り減らした wear or abrade by rubbing; warm by rubbing
    He c□□□ed his shoes on the the rocks.

238 あやふやな陳述 debatable
   d□□□□□□ble statements

239 ポケットの中を探る to look for carefully; search out
   f□□□□t about in one's pocket

240 論争に強い訴訟当事者 fond of arguing; contentious
   d□□□□□□tious litigants



答えと例文は次回のお楽しみ

英和辞典でrejoinderを比較する

分からない単語は、先ず英和中辞典で調べる。

満足できない時には、ランダムハウス、英和大辞典、ジーニアス大英和の順で引く。ほとんどの場合、ランダムハウスで納得する。ジーニアス大英和は、補欠選手である。


Super Anchor
(当意即妙な、またはきつい口調での)返答、答弁、言い返し

Wisdom
(かたく)1.(きつい口調の)返答、言い返し 2.(法)(被告の)第二訴答

Genius
(正式)1.(しばしば乱暴な)(・・・という)返答、答弁、言い返し 2.(法)(被告の)第二訴答

PAX
応答;(法)(被告の)第二答弁(書)

Color Oxford
1.(法)(原告の第二訴答に対する)被告の第二訴答.2.答弁、応答 (what is rejoined or said in reply)

旺文社英和中辞典
(堅)(即座の、怒った、おもしろい)返答、応答、答弁;返答に対する返答;言い返し

リーダーズ英和
答弁、返答、応答、(特に)答弁に対する答弁、再答弁、再回答;言い返し;(法)(被告の)第二訴答

ジーニアス英和大辞典
1.(しばしば短く機知に富んだ)(・・・という)返答、答弁、当意即妙の答え 2.(法律)(原告の第二訴答に対して被告が行う)第二訴答

英和大辞典
1. 答弁、返答、応答(reply,response);(特に)答弁に対する答弁 2.(法律)(原告の第二訴答(reply)に対する)被告の第二訴答

Random House
1.(返答に対する)返答、応答(response)2.(法律)(原告がする第二の訴答(replication)に対する被告の)第二訴答、再答弁




参考:英英辞典

SOD
1. The defendant’s answer to the plaintiff’s replication 2. An answer to a reply; also simply, a reply b. Without articles, in phr.

Collins
1. a reply or response to a question or remark, esp a quick witty one; retort 2. law (in pleading) the answer made by a defendant to the claimant’s reply

WTID
1. The defendant’s answer to the plaintiff’s replication 2. REPLY; specif: an answer to a reply

Webster’s College
1.a) an answer to reply. b) a reply; answer 2. in law , the defendant’s answer to the plaintiff’s replication

LDCE
[C] formal a reply, especially a rude one

OALD
[C]what is said in reply; retort

英語の復習 第22回裏・第23回

第22回裏

brisk  tepid   torpid   clue  wary   debauchery   wheedle   encroach   whim  dash


To this disloyal dog, who, thinking to have a strange woman in his arms, hath lavished on me more caresses and more fondnesses in this little while I have been here with him than in all the rest of the time I have been his. Thou hast been brisk enough to-day, renegade cur that thou art, that usest at home to show thyself so feeble and forspent and impotent; but, praised be God, thou hast tilled thine own field and not, as thou thoughtest, that of another. No wonder thou camest not anigh me yesternight; thou lookedst to discharge thee of thy lading elsewhere and wouldst fain come fresh to the battle; but, thanks to God and my own foresight, the stream hath e'en run in its due channel. Why answerest thou not, wicked man? Why sayst thou not somewhat? Art thou grown dumb, hearing me? Cock's faith, I know not what hindereth me from thrusting my hands into thine eyes and tearing them out for thee.
*renegade: a person who deserts his cause or faith for another 2. any outlaw or rebel
*cur: 1.any vicious dog, esp mongrel 2. a despicable or cowardly person
*forspent: (archaic) tired out; exhausted
*anigh,nigh; near to(SOD). (archaic) 1.near in place, time, or relationshp 2.nearly; almost(WTID)


Pitcher, confidential clerk in the office of Harvey Maxwell, broker, allowed a look of mild interest and surprise to visit his usually expressionless countenance when his employer briskly entered at half past nine in company with his young lady stenographer. With a snappy "Good-morning, Pitcher," Maxwell dashed at his desk as though he were intending to leap over it, and then plunged into the great heap of letters and telegrams waiting there for him.
*snappy: 1.apt to speak sharply or irritably 2.apt to snap or bite 3.crackling in sound 4.brisk, sharp, or chilly 5.smart and fashionable


With something new to talk about, something fresh to think over, with a legitimate object of sympathy and resentment, the torpid blood raced through their veins as might that of statesmen during some crisis in national affairs.

At last she could no longer resist the temptation to turn round just enough to see him. Haddo's eyes were fixed upon Margaret so intently that he did not see he was himself observed. His face, distorted by passion, was horrible to look upon. That vast mass of flesh had a malignancy that was inhuman, and it was terrible to see the satanic hatred which hideously deformed it. But it changed. The redness gave way to a ghastly pallor. The revengeful scowl disappeared; and a torpid smile spread over the features, a smile that was even more terrifying than the frown of malice. What did it mean? Susie could have cried out, but her tongue cleaved to her throat. The smile passed away, and the face became once more impassive. It seemed that Margaret and Arthur realized at last the power of those inhuman eyes, and they became quite still. The dog ceased its sobbing. The silence was so great that each one heard the beating of his heart. It was intolerable.
*cleave: to cling or adhere




第23回

221 一束の藁 small bundle
    a w□□p of straw

222 離脱する break with
    b□□t a political party

223 ぐらつく to move, rock, or sway unsteadily
   This table w□□□□es.

224 悲しみに取り乱す distracted; harassed; mentally confused
   be d□□□□□□ght with woe

225 恐怖で体が硬直する rigid; forceful; potent
   go s□□□f with terror

226 力尽きて気を失う complete consumption; extreme weakness or fatigue
   faint with (or from) e□□□□□□on

227 気難しい年寄り peevish; morose; ill-tempered; cross
   c□□□bed old age

228 酒臭かった to emit a foul smell
   He s□□□k of liquor.

229 将来を悲観する to lose courage, confidence, or hope; be depressed
   d□□□□□d of one's future

230 ファイルを丹念に調べる to find out, as by careful study or investigation
   d□g through the files


答えと例文は次回のお楽しみ

英語の復習 第21回裏・第22回

第21回裏

billet  disparage   whet   credulous   bully   daze  flabby  sylph   blaze   tart


Not one of them had passed her eight-and-twentieth year nor was less than eighteen years old, and each was discreet and of noble blood, fair of favour and well-mannered and full of honest sprightliness. The names of these ladies I would in proper terms set out, did not just cause forbid me, to wit, that I would not have it possible that, in time to come, any of them should take shame by reason of the things hereinafter related as being told or hearkened by them, the laws of disport being nowadays somewhat straitened, which at that time, for the reasons above shown, were of the largest, not only for persons of their years, but for those of a much riper age; nor yet would I give occasion to the envious, who are still ready to carp at every praiseworthy life, on anywise to disparage the fair fame of these honourable ladies with unseemly talk.
*hearken: (archaic) to listen to (something)
*disport: (archaic) amusement
*carp: to complain or find fault; nag pettily


“Oh, that my dear mother had more command over herself! She can have no idea of the pain she gives me by her continual reflections on him. But I will not repine. It cannot last long. He will be forgot, and we shall all be as we were before.”
Elizabeth looked at her sister with incredulous solicitude, but said nothing.
“You doubt me,” cried Jane, slightly colouring; “indeed, you have no reason. He may live in my memory as the most amiable man of my acquaintance, but that is all. I have nothing either to hope or fear, and nothing to reproach him with. Thank God! I have not that pain. A little time, therefore — I shall certainly try to get the better.”
*repine: to be fretful or low-spirited through discontent


Just in front of Mrs. James Williams sat a girl in a loose tan jacket and a straw hat adorned with grapes and roses. Only in dreams and milliners' shops do we, alas! gather grapes and roses at one swipe. This girl gazed with large blue eyes, credulous, when the megaphone man roared his doctrine that millionaires were things about which we should be concerned. Between blasts she resorted to Epictetian philosophy in the form of pepsin chewing gum.
*milliner: a person who makes or sells women’s hats
*pepsin: ペプシン消化剤


Bateman, mortified and exasperated, at first listened sullenly, but presently some magic in the words possessed him and he sat entranced. The mirage of romance obscured the light of common day. Had he forgotten that Arnold Jackson had a tongue of silver, a tongue by which he had charmed vast sums out of the credulous public, a tongue which very nearly enabled him to escape the penalty of his crimes? No one had a sweeter eloquence, and no one had a more acute sense of climax.
*silver-tongued: persuasive; eloquent



第22回

211 爽やかな秋の天気 lively; quick and active; sharp and stimulating
   b□□□k fall weather

212 ぬるま湯 lukewarm
   t□□□d water

213 精神は鈍ってきた inactive; dull
   His mind has grown t□□□□d in his old age.

214 問題解決への糸口 a later spelling of clew
   get a c□□e to a question

215 気をつける watchful; careful
   be w□□y in the choice of words

216 酒色にふける intemperance
    indulge in d□□□□□□ery

217 おべっかを使う to obtain by coaxing and flattery
   she w□□□□□ed some money out of her father

218 他人の土地を侵すadvance beyond proper limits
    e□□□□□□h on another's land

219 愚にもつかない思いつきで a sudden, passing, and often fanciful idea
   in an idle w□□m

220 鏡を粉々に砕く to smash; to strike violently against
   d□□h a mirror to pieces


答えと例文は次回のお楽しみ

20前はROM,70過ぎはRAM

外語時代、第3外国語でロシア語の授業を受けた。初めは10人ほどだったが、夏休みで3~4人になってしまった。東郷正延教授と亡命貴族出身の女性講師のクラスは、ほとんど個人教授のようなもので、40数名の中国語の授業より身が入った。

ロシア語は格変化する。これをそれほど苦労せず、覚えてしまった。ロシア人に箸を使わせると、ハシーミと言ってしまうと東郷先生が話してくれた。

ラテン語を独習して半年になる。英語の随筆を読むと、しばしばラテン語に遭遇する。彼らイギリス知識人にとってラテン語は、我々日本人の漢語成語のようなものなのだろう。

邦訳は、丁寧に意味を注につけているが、原書にはない。読む側にラテン語の教養は当然備わっていることが書き手、読み手双方の了解のもとで書かれているから、仕方がない。

研究社の大英和には常識中の常識レベルのラテン語はでているが、主に格言などであって、随筆作家の洒落たあるいは気ままな表現の理解には不十分である。

そこで英語と中国語は原書で読むことにしている私は、一念発起して、ラテン語を独習し始めた。

ラテン語の格変化はロシア語の比でない。現役時代、少しかじったスペイン語の格変化の多さに驚いたが、それでもラテン語より少ないのではないか。

今、とば口である名詞の格変化の段階から動詞の現在形まで進んで、その先に進まないでいる。

覚えることは覚える、しかし5日と言わず3日を隔てると、格の幾つかが欠落する。1週間もあければほとんど忘れる。これで少々疲れがでてきたためである。

20前はROM。一度覚えると夏休み、冬休み、年度末休み、これらのブランクを乗り越えて忘れない。ROMである。

70過ぎはRAM。常に電流を流していないと消去されてしまう。

毎日、20分でもラテン語に接すればいいのだが・・・

付:
1.cogito,ergo sum・・・私はやはりsum, ergo cogitoであると思います。et tu, Brute!・・・なぜBrutusがBruteなのか分かりました。

2.with 箸。ロシア語は箸自体が変化します。

英語の復習 第20回裏・第21回

第20回裏

fickle   despicable   avow  crest   dashing  dapple   berate  bicker   cove  limpid


Thus a succession of importunate, hungry, idle, overweening candidates for fame are encouraged by these fickle keepers, only to be betrayed, and left to starve or beg, or pine in obscurity, while the man of merit and respectability is neglected, discountenanced, and stigmatised, because he will not lend himself as a tool to this system of splendid imposition, or pamper the luxury and weaknesses of the Vulgar Great.
*overweening: 1 (of a person) excessively arrogant or presumptuous 2(of opinions, appetites,etc) excessive; immoderate
*discountenance: 1 to make ashamed or confused 2 to disapprove of 3 disapproval
*stigmatise: 1 to make out or descibe (as something bad) 2 to mark with a stigma or stigmata


Remember that we are all women and none of us is child enough not to know how [little] reasonable women are among themselves and how [ill], without some man's guidance, they know how to order themselves. We are fickle, wilful, suspicious, faint-hearted and timorous, for which reasons I misdoubt me sore, an we take not some other guidance than our own, that our company will be far too soon dissolved and with less honour to ourselves than were seemly; wherefore we should do well to provide ourselves, ere we begin.
*faint: without boldness or courage; timid (esp in combination faint-hearted)
*an: an obsolete or dialect word for ‘if’


He had nothing to live for since he knew that Mrs. Wallace could never love him. His love for her had borne him up and sustained him; but now it was hateful and despicable. After all, his life was his own to do what he liked with; the love of others had no right to claim his self-respect. If he had duties to them, he had duties to himself also; and more vehemently than ever James felt that such a union as was before him could only be a degradation. He repeated with new emotion that marriage without love was prostitution. If death was the only way in which he could keep clean that body ignorantly despised, why, he was not afraid of death! He had seen it too often for the thought to excite alarm.


She believed privately that Margaret's passion for the arts was a not unamiable pose which would disappear when she was happily married. To have half a dozen children was in her mind much more important than to paint pictures. Margaret's gift was by no means despicable, but Susie was not convinced that callous masters would have been so enthusiastic if Margaret had been as plain and old as herself.

第21回

201 兵隊が舎営している lodging; quarters
   The troops are in b□□□□ts

202 礼儀作法を無視するな to lower in esteem; show disrespect for
   Do not d□□□□□□ge good manners.

203 研ぐ;磨く to sharpen as by grinding or friction
   w□□t

204 軽信に基づく迷信 too ready to believe things
   c□□□□□□us superstition

205 脅して働かせる
   b□□□y a person into working

206 目がくらんだ to stupefy; stun; or bewilder, as by a shock or blow; to dazzle
   The splendor of the palace d□□ed him.

207 締まりのない顔 lacking firmness; lacking force
   a f□□□□y face

208 大気の精 any of a class of imaginary beings assumed to inhabit the air
   s□□ph

209 大きく報じた make known; proclaim; publish
    Headlines b□□□ed the shocking news.

210 身持ちの悪い女 a promiscuous woman, esp a prostitute
   t□□t


答えと例文は次回のお楽しみ

英和辞典は国語辞典か

問: 以下は英単語の語義である。各項、意味の違いを記せ

1.下劣な 卑しむべき 恥すべき

2.ふける 夢中になる

3.返答 答弁 言い返し

4.弱点 欠点 短所

5.だらしのない女 身持ちの悪い女

6.を消す 削除する

7.不器用な 扱いがへたな;不細工な できの悪い

8.嘆き悲しみ 泣き叫び 泣き叫ぶ声

9.一時的中断、小休止; 猶予、延期

10.騒動、大騒ぎ; 混乱、 心の乱れ、 精神的動揺 

11. [通例ほめて] 男らしい、 男性的な; 力強い、雄雄しい、剛健な

12. [けなして] うわべだけの、表面上の;

13. [けなして] 不潔な;むさくるしい

14. [けなして]言葉が多い、くどい、饒舌な、冗漫な

15. [しばしばけなして]大声で叫ぶ、絶叫する; やかましい、騒がしい


こういう問題が出されても、私には違いが分からない。「うわべだけの」と「表面上の」のどこがちがうのか分からない。

この英和辞典を引くのは高校生であろう。高校生の何人が、「男らしい」と「男性的な」の違いを述べることができるか。

一流大学の国文科の学生でも、苦労するのではないか。多分、できないだろう。それもそのはず、違いは一つが和文、他が漢文という表現上の違いだけだからである。

「饒舌」を広辞苑では「口数が多いこと。多弁なこと。おしゃべり。」と説明している。

饒舌を載せたために、饒にじょうとふりがなをつけるはめになっている。饒舌の意味を知らない生徒が引くのは国語辞典であって英和辞典ではない。

「うわべだけの」
ほめて使うシチュエーションを想像できますか。わざわざ括弧付けで「けなして」となぜ言っているのか。

「くどい」
同様である。

ついでに加えると、精神的動揺は、晴れた晴天ではないか。動揺が単なる「ゆれうごく」意味には、現在使われない。「震度5の地震で日和大橋が動揺した」とアナウンサーは報じない、新聞も書かない。心の揺れでしか使われない。「動揺」で十分である。

パタンと開いたら、gateがあった。

gate の語義は「門」一つでいい。文脈にしたがって、とびら、木戸、出入り口、城門、水門、バルブなど、読み手に任せればいい。

すべての英和辞典はverbose!半分のページ以下に収まる。2000ページが1000ページになれば、冊子辞書も携帯できるというもの。

たまたま手元にあったジーニアス英和辞典改訂版を開いてこれを書いてみた。他の辞書も似たようなものに違いない。

英和辞典は日本語の同義語、近似語辞典ではない。私は英和辞書編纂者の神経を疑っている。





相当する英単語(すべて英語の復習にから)の不要語義一覧

1.vile 恥すべき (下劣な 卑しむべき 不要)

2.revel ふける (夢中になる 不要)

3.rejoinder 言い返し (返答 答弁 不要) 

4.foible  短所 (弱点 欠点 不要)

5.trollop だらしのない女  (身持ちの悪い女 不要)

6.efface を消す (削除する 不要)

7.clumsy  扱いがへたな; できの悪い (不器用な 不細工な 不要)

8.wail 嘆き悲しみ 泣き叫び (泣き叫ぶ声 不要)

9.respite 、小休止; 延期 (猶予 一時的中断 不要)

10.tumult大騒ぎ; 混乱、 心の乱れ (騒動、精神的動揺 不要) 

11.virile [通例ほめて 不要] 男らしい; 力強い(男性的な 雄雄しい、剛健な 不要)

12.glib [けなして 不要] うわべだけの (表面上の 不要)

13.squalid [けなして不要]むさくるしい (不潔な 不要)

14.verbose [けなして不要]言葉が多い (くどい、饒舌な、冗漫な 不要)

15.vociferous [しばしばけなして不要] 大声で叫ぶ (やかましい、絶叫する 騒がしい 不要)





英語の復習 第19回裏・第20回

第19回裏

bounder  sparse  desultory  spasmodic  detain  rumple  capsize renounce  tribulation  deter


Suddenly I caught sight of that odious little bounder on one of the benches opposite, Griffiths the Welsh member; he put out his tongue at me.


‘Betty, you can’t do it,’ he said. ‘It’s simply out of the question.’
‘Why?’
‘He’s awful.’
‘I don’t think he is. I think he’s rather nice.’
A waiter came up and took their order. Betty looked at Carruthers with those
beautiful blue eyes of hers that managed to be at the same time so gay and so tender.
‘He’s such a frightful bounder, Betty.’
‘Oh, don’t be so silly, Humphrey. He’s just as good as anybody else. I think you’re rather a snob.’
‘He’s so dull.’
‘No, he’s rather quiet. I don’t know that I want a husband who’s too brilliant. I think he’ll make a very good background. He’s quite good–looking and he has nice manners.’
‘My God, Betty.’
‘Oh, don’t be idiotic, Humphrey.’


Cobbett is a pleasanter writer for those to read who do not agree with him; for he is less dogmatical, goes more into the common grounds of fact and argument to which all appeal, is more desultory and various, and appears less to be driving at a present conclusion than urged on by the force of present conviction. He is therefore tolerated by all parties, though he has made himself by turns obnoxious to all; and even those he abuses read him.


Fafner nodded slightly to Fasolt, but whether to indicate that he thought Ashenden an imbecile or whether in sympathy with his desire for a safe retreat from a turbulent world, Ashenden had no means of knowing. Anyhow the detective evidently came to the conclusion that he could learn nothing more from talking to Ashenden, for his remarks grew now desultory and in a few minutes he rose to go.



第20回

191 変わりやすい天候 casually changeable; not constant
    f□□□□e weather

192 卑劣な 行為 deserving to be despised; contemptible
   d□□□□□□ble behavior
 
193 時分の主張を言明する declare openly or frankly; confess
   a□□w one's principles

194 人気の絶頂にある the top of anything, or the line or surface along the top
   be at the c□□□t of popularity

195 勇ましい英雄 bold and lively
   a d□□□□□g hero

196 あし毛の馬 spotted; mottled; variegated
   a d□□□□e horse

197 人前で叱り飛ばした scold; rebuke
    She b□□□□ed him in public.

198 口論する quarrel; wrangle
    b□□□□r over trifles

199 おかしな奴(British Slang) a boy or man; chap; fellow
    a rum c□□e

200 澄んだ池clear; transparent
    We could see the very bottom of the l□□□□d pool.


答えと例文は次回のお楽しみ

英語の復習 第18回裏・第19回

第18回裏

sordid   clasp   gout   virulent  acrid  vituperate   dapper  sore  cozen  souse


When he remembered the modest home he had come from, a little red house in a long row of little red houses, in Barnes, a suburb which, aiming desperately at the genteel, achieves only a sordid melancholy, and compared it with the magnificent stone mansion, with its wide verandas and spacious rooms, which was at once the office of the company and his own residence, he chuckled with satisfaction.


The Avenue de Clichy was crowded at that hour, and a lively fancy might see in the passers-by the personages of many a sordid romance. There were clerks and shop girls; old fellows who might have stepped out of the pages of Honore de Balzac; members, male and female, of the professions which make their profit of the frailties of mankind.


It was a small square room, with one window, and the only furniture consisted of two low Chinese beds covered with matting. In one corner was a large chest, with an elaborate lock, and on this stood a shabby tray with an opium pipe on it and a lamp. There was in the room the faint, acrid scent of the drug. They sat down and Ong Chi Seng offered them cigarettes. In a moment the door was opened by the fat Chinaman whom they had seen behind the counter.


There was a peculiar odour in the place, so that Dr Porhoët was for a moment transported to the evil-smelling streets of Cairo. It was an acrid mixture of incense, of attar of roses, with every imaginable putrescence. It choked the two women, and Susie asked for a cigarette. The native grinned when he heard the English tongue. He showed a row of sparkling and beautiful teeth.
*attar: an essential oil from flowers, esp the damask rose, used pure or as a bese of perfume
*putrescence: rottenness (WTID)


A speech from the poorer sort of people, which always indicates that the party vituperated is a gentleman. The very fact which they deny, is that which galls and exasperates them to use this language. The forbearance with which it is usually received, is a proof what interpretation the bystander sets upon it. Of a kin to this, and still less politic, are the phrases with which, in their street rhetoric, they ply one another more grossly:—He is a poor creature.—He has not a rag to cover—&c.; though this last, we confess, is more frequently applied by females to females.

WTID : Webster’s Third New International Dictionary
正しい略称を知らないので、WTID と呼びます




第19回

181 下品な成り上がり者 an ill-mannered, rude, pushing person
   b□□□□□r

182 まばらな人口 thinly scattered or distributed
   a s□□□□e population

183 とりとめのない会話 jumping one thing to another; disconnected
   d□□□□tory conversation

184 断続的な戦い intermittent
   s□□□□□□ic fighting

185 仕事で手間取った delay; keep waiting; keep in custody
  He was d□□□□ned by business

186 しわくちゃにする to make or become wrinkled, crumpled, ruffled, or dishevelled
   r□□□□e a sheet of paper

187 ボートを転覆させてしまった overturn; upset
   They c□□□□□ed the boat.

188 戦争放棄 to give up (a claim or right), esp by formal announcement
   the r□□□□□□e a title of war

189 苦難の人生 a cause of distress; a state of suffering or distress
   a life of t□□□□□□tion

190 ピクニックをあきらめさせた to keep a person from doing something through fear, anxiety, doubts, etc.
   The weather d□□□□red them from going on a picnic.


答えと例文は次回のお楽しみ

英語の復習 第17回裏・第18回

第17回裏

crashing  feat   cruet   dally   exalt  dab   fornication  exiguous   somber   embower


The dining–room was dingy. The worn electro–plate, the shabby cruet, the chipped dishes betokened poverty, but a poverty accepted with apathy. A few flowers would have brightened the table, but there was apparently no one to care how things looked.
*betoken: to indicate; signify


I dally with my subject because, to myself, the remembrance of these times is profoundly interesting. But my reader shall not have any further cause to complain, for I now hasten to its close.


In the Mrs Albert Forrester was deeply interested in politics and I myself heard a Cabinet Minister tell her frankly that she had a masculine intelligence. She had been opposed to Female Suffrage, but when it was at last granted to women she began to dally with the idea of going into Parliament. Her difficulty was that she did not know which party to choose.


He knew what he wanted and he asked for it, and if he couldn’t get it for love or money he shrugged his shoulders and went his way. To be brief, he did not look to women to gratify his ideal but to provide him with fornication. It was odd that though small and plain he found so many who were prepared to grant his wishes. For his spiritual needs he found satisfaction in unicellular organisms. He had always been a man who spoke to the point, and when he told me he was going to marry a young woman called Margery Hobson I did not hesitate to ask him why.


We were going to the tenements where most of the Russians meet of an evening. The atmosphere in these places is a little more cheerful than that of the cafés--if you can imagine a Russian ever rising to cheerfulness. Most of the girls lodge over the milliners' shops, and thither their friends resort. Every establishment here has a piano, for music, with them, is a somber passion rather than a diversion. You will not hear comic opera, but if you want to climb the lost heights of melody, stand in Bell Yard, and listen to a piano, lost in the high glooms, wailing the heart of Chopin, or Rubinstein or Glazounoff through the fingers of pale, moist girls, while the ghost of Peter the Painter parades the naphtha'd highways.




第18回


171 浅ましい群衆 dirty; filthy
   a s□□□□d mob

172 札束ばさみ a fastening; device with two parts that fasten 
   a c□□□p for paper money

173 痛風 a metabolic disease characterized by painful inflammation of certain joints, esp of the big toe and foot
   rich man’s g□□t

174 毒のある虫の刺し傷 actively poisonous
   v□□□□□□t insect bite

175 手厳しい評言・つんとくる臭い sharp; biting
   a□□□d remarks
   the a□□□d smell of burning feathers

176 ケチをつける find fault with
   v□□□□□□ate

177 りゅうとして見えた trim; neat; smart; spruce
   He looked very d□□□□r in his new suit

178 痛む傷 physically painful
   s□□e wound

179 騙して金を巻き上げる cheat; deceive; beguile
  c□□□n a person of money

180 酒をかける immerse; drench; dash
   s□□□e wine over the meat


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英語の復習 第16回裏・第17回

第16回裏

flounder  abstain  remonstrate  crack  flurry  brackish arrest  embroil  deferential  engaging


There is no reason why an animal with so undiscriminating a palate should demand song-birds for its food, when even human beings, who are fairly unscrupulous eaters, have agreed in some measure to abstain from them. On reflection, however, I doubt if it is his appetite for birds that makes the cat with the yellow eyes feel guilty. If you were able to talk to him in his own language, and formulate your accusations against him as a bird-eater, he would probably be merely puzzled and look on you as a crank.


It behoveth a man, then, in the first place, whenas he cometh to begin the penance, to confess himself with the utmost diligence of his sins, and after this he must keep a fast and a very strict abstinence for the space of forty days, during which time thou must abstain from touching, not to say other women, but even thine own wife.
*whenas: (archaic) when; whenever

Albert Edward was a non–smoker and a total abstainer, but with a certain latitude; that is to say he liked a glass of beer with his dinner and when he was tired he enjoyed a cigarette.


There was a village among coconuts on the sea–shore opposite the opening of the reef and another village on a brackish lake in the middle of the island.


Her look and manners were open, cheerful, and engaging as ever, but without any symptom of peculiar regard, and I remained convinced from the evening’s scrutiny, that though she received his attentions with pleasure, she did not invite them by any participation of sentiment.



第17回

161 特別なお祝い unusual; exceptional; absolute
   a c□□□□□□g celebration

162 武勲 remarkable deed
   f□□ts of arms

163 薬味ビン a small grass bottle to hold vinegar, oil, etc., for the table
   c□□□t

164 ぶらぶらと時を過ごす waste time; delay; sport
   d□□□y away

165 口を極めて褒めそやす elevate; praise; stimulate
   e□□□t a person to the skies

166 紙に筆を当てる to touch or strike lightly an quickly
    d□b paper with a brush

167 私通; 偶像崇拝 adultery; idolatry
    f□□□□□□tion

168 心細い収入 scanty; meager; small; slender
  a merely e□□□□□□s income

169 陰気な通路 gloomily dark
   a s□□□□r passageway

170 低木に囲まれた家 shelter; surround; cover
   a house e□□□□□red with shrubs


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英語の復習 第15回裏・第16回

第15回裏

contort cod flounce bumptious afflict contrite bunk(bunkum) strain drivel curt


I suppose he had a way with him, for, with no money and no looks, he managed to pick up a succession of young persons who gratified his roving desires. He was clever and bumptious, argumentative and quick–tempered. He had a caustic tongue. Looking back, I should say he was a rather disagreeable young man, but I do not think he was a bore.


I venture to say that he had pretty well all the qualifications necessary for a diplomatic career. He was of a family of soldiers and sailors, nothing very grand, but eminently respectable, and he knew how to behave in the great world without bumptiousness or timidity. He was well–read. He took an interest in painting. I dare say he made himself a trifle ridiculous; he wanted to be in the movement, he was very anxious to be modern, and at a time when little was known of Gauguin and Cezanne he raved over their pictures. There was perhaps a certain snobbishness in his attitude, a desire to shock and astonish the conventional, but at heart his admiration of the arts was genuine and sincere.


‘I hope I shall have the pleasure of seeing you again one of these days,’ he said, and with a curt nod left him.


Two days later--that is, on Wednesday last--there is a curt announcement that the wedding had taken place, and that the honeymoon would be passed at Lord Backwater's place, near Petersfield.


第16回

151 つかえつかえ歌う to speak or act I awkward, confused manner, with hesitation and frequent mistakes
   f□□□□□□r through a song

152 肉食を控える
   a□□□□□n from eating meat

153 抗議する to argue in protest or objection
   r□□□□□□rate with (or against) the government

154 かすれた笑い声 to become harsh or rasping, as the voice when hoarse
   a c□□□ked laugh

055 へまをしてひどくうろたえた to confuse; agitate
   She was utterly f□□□□ied at her error.

156 やや塩辛い mixed with salt; distasteful
   b□□□□□□h

157 注意を引きつける catch and hold; attract and fix
  a□□□□t the attention

158 紛争に巻き込まれる involve; throw into confusion
   be e□□□□□led in a dispute

159 貴族に敬意を持つ very respectful
  d□□□□□□tial to the nobles

160 愛嬌のある微笑 winning; attractive; pleasing
  an e□□□□□□g smile


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