Fair is foul, and foul is fair – Macbeth Act 1 SceneⅠ・・・きれいはきたない、きたないはきれい







(1)は最初の段、(5)は最後の段。football matchをうまく使っています。




A Funeral

 It was a Surrey churchyard on a grey, damp afternoon – all very solitary and quiet, with no alien spectators and only a very few mourners; and no desolating sense of loss, although a very true and kindly friend was passing from us. A football match was in progress in a field adjoining the churchyard, and I wondered, as I stood by the grave, if, were I the schoolmaster, I would stop the game just for a few minutes during which a body was committed to the earth; and I decided that I would not. In the midst of the death we are in life, just as in the midst of life we are in death; it is all as it should be in this bizarre, jostling world. And he whom we had come to bury would have been the first to wish the boys to go on with their sport.

 His life was divided between his books, his friends, and long walks. A solitary man, he worked at all hours without much method, and probably courted his fatal illness in this way. To his own name there is not much to show; but such was his liberality that he was continually helping others, and the fruits of his erudition are widely scattered, and have gone to increase many a comparative stranger’s reputation. His own magnum opus he left unfinished; he had worked at it for years, until to his friends it had come to be something of a joke. But though still shapeless, it was great feast, as the world, I hope, will one day know.

 It was a curious little company that assembled to do honour to this old kindly bachelor – the two or three relatives that he possessed, and eight of his literary friends, most of them a good age, and for the most part men of intellect, and in one or two cases of world-wide reputation, and all a little uncomfortable in unwonted formal black. We are very grave and thoughtful, but it was not exactly a sad funeral, for we knew that had he lived longer – he was sixty-three – he would certainly have been an invalid, which would have irked his active, restless mind and body almost unbearably; and we knew, also that he had died in his first real illness after a very happy life. Since we knew this, and also that he was a bachelor and almost alone, those of us who were not his kin were not melted and unstrung by that poignant sense of untimely loss and irreparable removal that makes some funerals so tragic; but death, however it come, is a mystery before which one cannot stand unmoved and unregretful; and I, for one, as I stood there, remembered how easy it would have been oftener to have ascend to his eyrie and lured him out into Hertfordshire or his beloved Epping, or even have dragged him away to dinner and whisky punch; and I found myself meditating, too, as the profoundly impressive service rolled on, how melancholy it was that all that storied brain, with its thousands of exquisite phrases and its perhaps unrivalled knowledge of Shakespearean philology, should have ceased to be. For such a cessation, at any rate, say what one will of immortality, is part of the sting of the death, part of the victory of the grave, which St Paul denied with such magnificent irony.

 And then we filed out into the churchyard, which is a new and very large one, although the church is old, and at a snail’s pace, led by clergyman, we crept along, a little black company, for, I suppose, nearly a quarter of a mile, under the cold grey sky. As I said, many of us were old, and most of us were indoor men, and I was amused to see how close to the head some of us held our hats – the merest barleycorn of interval being maintained for reverence’ sake; whereas the sexton and the clergyman had slipped on those black velvet skull-caps which God, in His infinite mercy, either completely overlooks, or seeing, smiles at. And there our old friend was committed to the earth, amid the contending shouts of the football players, and then we all clapped our hats on our heads with firmness (as he would have wished us to do long before), and returned to the town to drink tea in an ancient hostelry, and exchange memories, quaint, and humorous, and touching, and beautiful, of the dead.


desolate   わびしい
adjoin  隣接する
bizarre 奇妙な
jostle  押し合う
liberality  物惜しみしないこと
erudition  博学
magnum opus  大作

unwonted  異常な
invalid  病弱な
irk  困らせる
unstring  がっくりさせる
poignant  心を刺すような
irreparable  回復できない
eyrie aerie  高所の住み家
philology  文献学
cessation  中断

barleycorn  大粒の麦
reverence  威厳
sexton  会堂管理人
skull-cap  縁無し帽子
hostelry  居酒屋
quaint  珍奇な










まあ、いいとする。 取り扱う側の私だって、2年の保証はないのだ。




The Maypole and the Column

(1)Wiltshire 中辞典には地名だけ、新英和には、ウイルトシア(英国産の角のねじれた純白品種の羊)も載っています。次にshepherdsがあるので、地名より羊の方を採用します。


to make ~ of ~(~を~にする)の構造が分かっても、まだピンと来ません。


Hazlittはミソクソです。Lambは少し批判して(わさび代わり)褒めちぎっています。 Hazlittの学者バカ論(5月9日ブログ)は傑作だと私は思うのですが。

(3)Shining Ones Oneは神。ではShiningは何か。大文字で始まる「輝いている」は大辞典にも出ていません。Shining OneをHewlettが造語したのでしょう。太陽神はありますが、陽光神はありませんね。似たような感じです。


joco-serious 中辞典にも新英和にもなし。よく見ると、jocose と serious。seを供用しているではありませんか。ふざけです。




 Hazlitt is the typical journalist-essayist. He could fill a column with any man born, yet not with pure gain to literature. He makes an ungracious figure in history, unsocial and anti-social too, with his blundering, uncouth loves, his undignified quarrels, and insatiable hatreds.
His spleen engulfed him, and I have often wondered what our Wiltshire shepherds made of him, lowering like a storm about the combed of Winterslow. None of the ‘pastoral melancholy’ of that grassy solitude shows in his writing, whose zest is that of hunger rather than wholesome appetite. Indeed, I don’t think he was a tolerable essayist. He was too eager to destroy, and the very moral of his Jon Bull who would sooner, any day, give up an estate than a bugbear.

 He learned length from the Reviews, which encouraged the essay to be a treatise, and have many a tedious page. Illustrations press upon him and cannot be refused. He has that trick of saying the same thing several times in slightly different ways which was common to all the essayists of his time, doomed to fill their columns. Procter, Leigh Hunt, and Lamb all did that – Lamb less tiresomely than any; for Lamb enhanced the image, or shifted it into happier view, with every addition. But Haziltt left it where it was, or hid it.

 Lamb was essayist first, and journalist with what remained over. A column was set up; he made it a maypole. No craftman has dared his idea, or capered about it as Lamb did. He transfigures whatever he touches; more, he transmutes it. His seventeenth-century jargon, which you may find tiresome, is part of them. It is, so to speak, joco-serious with him. He is generally better without it, as in ‘Blakemoor’ or ‘Barbara S---‘ or ‘Dream-Children’; yet of all Elia the most beautiful thing to me is one which has Burton and Sir Thomas Browne all over it, ‘A Quaker’ Meeting. There you have exactly what I mean by my overworked figure of the Maypole. A theme set up, and hung with loving art; then round about it a measure trodden, sedately for the most part, but with involuntary skips aside as the whim takes him. Lamb could not spare a joke even at a funeral; but this is sheer beauty, a serene and lovely close:
  The very garments of a Quaker seem incapable of receiving a soil; and cleanliness in them to be something more than the absence of its contrary. Every Quakeress is a lily; and when they come up in bands to their Whitsun conferences, whitening the easterly streets of metropolis, from all parts of the United Kingdom, the show like troops of the Shining Ones.


Blundering ぎこちない
uncouth 無骨な
undignified 品位に欠ける
insatiable 飽くことを知らない
spleen 悪意
coombe (combe) 谷あい
zest 熱情
bugbear 妖怪

treatise 学術論文

drape 飾る
caper 跳ね回る
transmute 変質させる
jargon 訳の分からない言葉
joco-serious  jocose ふざけた
overworked 働き過ぎた
sedate 静かな
whim 気まぐれ
serene 穏やかな






A conversation with a Cat

 The other day I went into the bar of a railway station and, taking a glass of beer, I sat down at a little table by myself to meditate upon the necessary but tragic isolation of human soul. I began my meditation by consoling myself with the truth that something in common runs through all nature, but I went on to consider that this cut no ice, and that the heart needed something more. I might by long research have discovered some third term a little less hackneyed than these two, when fate, or some fostering star, sent me a tawny, silky, long-haired cat.

 If it be true that nations have the cats they deserve, then the English people deserve well in cats, for there are none so prosperous or so friendly in the world. But even for an English cat this cat was exceptionally friendly and fine – especially friendly. It leapt at one graceful bound into my lap, nestled there, put out an engaging right front paw to touch my arm with a pretty timidity by way of introduction, rolled up at me an eye of bright but innocent affection, and then smiled a secret smile of approval.

 No man could be so timid after such an approach as not to make some manner of response. So did I. I even took the liberty of stroking Amathea (for by that name did I receive this vision), and though I began this gesture in a respectful fashion, after the best models of polite deportment with strangers, I was soon lending it some warmth, for I was touched to find that I had a friend; yes, even here, at the ends of the tubes in S.W.99. I proceeded (as is right) from caress to speech, and said, ‘Amathea, most beautiful of cats, why have you deigned to single me out for so much favour? Did you recognize in me a friend to all that breathes, or were you yourself suffering from loneliness (though I take it you are near your own dear home), or is there pity in the hearts of animals as there is in the hearts of some humans? What, then, was your motive? Or am I, indeed, foolish to ask, and not rather to take whatever good comes to me in whatever way from the gods?

 ‘You will never leave me, Amathea,’ I said; ‘I will respect your sleep and we will sit here together through all uncounted time, I holding you in my arms and you dreaming of the fields of Paradise. Nor shall anything part us Amathea; you are my cat and I am your human. Now and onwards into the fullness of peace.’

 Then it was Amathea lifted herself once more, and with delicate, discreet, unweighted movement of perfect limbs leapt lightly to the floor as lovely as a wave. She walked slowly away from me without so much as looking back over her shoulder; she had another purpose in her mind; and as she so gracefully and so majestically neared the door which she was seeking, a short, unpleasant man standing at the bar said ’Puss, Puss, Puss!’ and stooped to scratch her gently behind the ear. With what a wealth of singular affection, pure and profound, did she not gaze up at him, and then rub herself against his leg in token and external expression of a sacramental friendship that should never die.


hackneyed  陳腐な
tawny  黄褐色の

nestle  気持よく収まる
engaging   魅力的な

caress   愛撫
deign   くださる

sacramental  神聖な


A Defence of Nonsenseも、選ばれていました。同じ defence でも題名が気に入って、こちらを取り上げました。

penny dreadful  扇情的なかすとり雑誌(新英和)。日本でいえば、週刊新潮や週刊文春の類です。


A Defence of Penny Dreadfuls

 One of the strangest examples of the degree to which ordinary life is undervalued is the example of popular literature, the vast mass of which we contentedly describe as vulgar. The boy’s novelette may be ignorant in a literary sense, which is only like saying that a modern novel is ignorant in chemical sense, or the economic sense, or the astronomical sense; but it is not vulgar intrinsically – it is the actual centre of a million flaming imaginations.

 In former centuries the educated class ignored the ruck of vulgar literature. They ignored, and therefore did not, properly speaking, despise it. Simple ignorance and indifference does not inflate the character with pride. A man does not walk down the street giving a haughty twirl to his moustaches at the thought of his superiority to some variety of deep-sea fishes. The old scholars left the whole under-world of popular compositions in a similar darkness,

 To-day, however, we have reversed this principle. We do despise vulgar compositions, and we do not ignore them. We are in some danger of becoming petty in our study of pettiness; there is a terrible Circean law in the background that if the soul stoops too ostentatiously to examine anything it never gets up again. There is no class of vulgar publications about which there is, to my mind, more utterly ridiculous exaggeration an misconception than the current boy’s literature of the lowest stratum. This class of composition has presumably always existed, and must exist. It has no more claim to be good literature than the daily conversation of its readers to be oratory, or the lodging-houses and tenements they inhabit to be sublime architecture. But people must have conversation, they must have houses, and they must have stories. The simple need for some kind of ideal world in which fictitious persons play an unhampered part is infinitely deeper and older than the rules of good art, and much more important. Every one of us in childhood has constructed such an invisible dramatis personae; but it never occurred to our nurses to correct the composition by careful comparison with Balzac.


contented  満足した
novelette  やや低俗な中・短編小説
astronomical 天文学の
intrinsical 本質的な
flaming 燃えるような

ruck 群れ
inflate 得意がらせる
haughty 高慢な(古)気高い
twirl  巻きつける

Circean キルケーのような(新英和)
stoop  敢えて~する
ostentatious これ見よがしの
stratum 階層
oratory 修辞
tenement 貸室
unhampered 束縛されていない (新英和)
dramatis personae   登場人物


(1)の少し前で、Hazlittの‘On Going a Journey’に言及しています。



to remember the faces of women without desire いい文章です。 いつも頭の中にありましたが、出処が思い出せませんでした。ここだったのでした。


run to and fro upon the earth like frightened sheep





  Walking Tours

 You may dally as long as you like by roadside. It is almost as if the millennium were arrived, when we shall throw our clocks and watches over the house-top, and remember time and seasons no more. Not to keep hours for a lifetime is, I was going to say, to live for ever. You have no Idea, unless you have tried it, how endlessly long is a summer’s day, that you measure out only by hunger, and bring to an end only when you are drowsy. I know a village where there are hardly any clocks, where no one knows more of the days of the week than by a sort of instinct for the fete on Sundays, and where only one person can tell you the day of the month, and she is generally wrong; and if people were aware how slow Time journeyed in that village, and what armfuls of spare hours he gives, over and above the bargain, to its wise inhabitants, I believe there would be a stampede out of London, Liverpool, Paris, and a variety of large towns, where the clocks lose their hands, and shake the hours out each one faster than the others, as though they were all in a wager. And all these foolish pilgrims would each bring his own misery along with him, in a watch-pocket! It is to be noticed, there were no clocks and watches in the much-vaunted days before the flood. It follows, of course, there were no appointments, and punctuality was not yet thought upon. ‘Though ye take from a covetous man all his treasure,’ says Milton, ‘he has yet one jewel left; ye cannot deprive him of his covetousness.’ And so I would say of a modern man of business, you may do what you will for him, put him in Eden, give him the elixir of life – he has still a flaw at heart, he still has his business habits. Now, there is no time when business habits are more mitigated than on a walking tour. And so during these halts, as I say, you feel almost free.

 But it is at night, and after dinner, that the best hour comes. There are no such pipes to be smoked as those that follow a good day’s march; the flavour of the tobacco is a thing to be remembered, it is so dry and aromatic, so full and so fine. If you wind up the evening with grog, you will own there was never such grog; at every sip a jocund tranquility spreads about your limbs, and sits easily in your heart. If you read a book – and you will never do so save by fits and starts – you find the language strangely racy and harmonious; words take a new meaning; single sentences possess the ear for half an hour together; and the writer endears himself to you, at every page, by the nicest coincidence of sentiment. It seems as if it were a book you had written yourself in a dream. To all we have read on such occasions we look back with special favour.

 We are in such haste to be doing, to be writing, to be gathering gear, to make our voice audible a moment in the derisive silence of eternity, that we forget that one thing, of which there are but the parts – namely to live. We fall in love, we drink hard, we run to and fro upon the earth like frightened sheep. And now you are to ask yourself if, when all is done, you would not have been better to sit by the fire at home, and be happy thinking. To sit still and contemplate, – to remember the faces of women without desire, to be pleased by the great deeds of men without envy, to be everything and everywhere in sympathy, and yet content to remain where and what you are – is not this to know both wisdom and virtue, and to dwell with happiness? After all, it is not they who carry flags , but they who look upon it from a private chamber who have the fun of the procession. And once you are at that, you are in the very humour of all social heresy. It is no time shuffling, or for big empty words. If you ask yourself what you mean by fame, riches, or leaning, the answer is far to seek; and you go back into that kingdom of light imaginations, which seem so vain in the eyes of Philistines perspiring after wealth, and so momentous to those who are stricken with the disproportions of the world, and in the face of the gigantic stars, cannot stop to split differences between two degrees of the infinitesimally small, such as a tobacco pipe or the Roman Empire, a million of money or a fiddlestick’s end.


dally  (古風)時間を無駄にする
the millennium 至福千年
fete  祝日
over and above なおもその上に
stampede   驚いて集団で逃げ出すこと
wager   賭け事
vaunted 自慢の
covetous   欲張りの
the elixir of life   不老不死の霊薬
flaw 弱点
mitigate 和らげる

aromatic   芳しい
grog  グロッグ酒
jocund  (文)陽気な
by fits and starts   気まぐれに(新英和)
racy   生気のある
endear   慕わせる

derisive あざけりの
dwell   暮らす
heresy  異端
Philistine   実利主義者
perspire  汗を流す
momentous  重大な
stricken   悩んでいる
disproportion 不調和
infinitesimal   無限小の
fiddlestick   バイオリンの弓

英随筆選・・・LEIGH HUNT(2)






Getting Up on Cold Mornings

 Some people say it is a very easy thing to get up of a cold morning. You have only, they tell you, to take the resolution; and the thing is done. This may be very true; just as a boy at school has only to take a flogging, and the thing is over. But we have not at all made up our minds upon it; and we find it a very pleasant exercise to discuss the matter, candidly, before we get up. This at least is not
Idling, though it may be lying. It affords an excellent answer to those, who ask how lying in bed can be indulged in by a reasoning being, – a rational creature. How? Why with the argument calmly at work in one’s head, and the clothes over one’s shoulder. Oh – it is a fine way of spending a sensible, impartial half-hour.

  Thomson the poet, who exclaims in his Seasons –
      Falsely luxurious! Will not man awake?
used to lie in bed till noon, because he said he had no motive in getting up. He could imagine the good of rising; but then he could also imagine the good of lying still; and his exclamation, it must be allowed, was made upon summer-time, not winter. We must proportion the argument to the individual character. A money-getter may be drawn out of his bed by three and four pence; but this will not suffice for a student. A proud man may say, ‘What shall I think of myself, if I don’t get up?’ But the more humble one will be content to waive his prodigious notion of himself, out of respect to his kindly bed. The mechanical man shall get up without any ado at all; and so shall the barometer. An ingenious lier in bed will find hard matter of discussion even on the score of health and longevity. He will ask us for our proofs and precedents of the ill effects of lying later in cold weather; and sophisticate much of the advantages of an even temperature of body; of the natural propensity (pretty universal) to have one’s way; and of the animals that roll themselves up, and sleep all the winter, As ti longevity, he will ask whether the longest life is of necessity the best; and whether Holborn is the handsomest street in London.


flogging  体罰
candidly   率直に言えば
impartial   公平な

falsely   不当に
suffice   足りる
waive   捨てる
prodigious   異常な
barometer   晴雨計
ingenious   真面目な
lier   横たわる人
longevity   長寿
sophisticate   詭弁を弄する
propensity   性癖
roll oneself up   くるまる(新英和)


英随筆選・・・LEIGH HUNT (1)


(2)終りの Just so と Yes Madam は寝ぼけ眼のピント外れの相槌です(と私は解釈します)




A Few Thoughts on Sleep

 This is an article for the reader to think of when he or she is warm in bed, a little before he goes to sleep, the clothes at his ear, and the wind moaning in some distant crevice. ‘Blessings,’ exclaimed Sancho, ‘on him that first invented sleep! It wraps a man all round like a cloak.’ It is a delicious moment certainly – that of being well nestled in bed, and feeling that you shall drop gently to sleep. The good is to come, not past: the limbs have been just tired enough to render the remaining in one posture delightful: the labour of the day is done. A gentle failure of the perceptions comes creeping over one: – the spirit of consciousness disengages itself more and more, with slow and hushing degrees like a mother detaching her hand from that of her sleeping child; – the mind seems to have a balmy lid closing over it, like the eye; – ‘tis closing; ‘ts more closing; – ‘tis closed. The mysterious spirit has gone to take its airy rounds.

 In the course of the day few people think of sleeping, except after dinner; and then it is often rather a hovering and nodding on the borders of sleep than sleep itself. This is a privilege allowable, we think, to none but the old, or the sickly, or the very tired and care-worn, and it should be well understood before it is exercised in company. To escape into slumber from an argument; or to take it as an affair of course, only between you and your biliary duct; or to assent with involuntary nods to all that you have just been disputing, is not so well; much less, to sit nodding and tottering beside a lady; or to be in danger of dropping your head into the fruit-plate or your host’s face; or of waking up, and saying ‘Just so’ to the bark of a dog; ‘Yes, Madam,’ to the black at your elbow.

 The most complete and healthy sleep that can be taken in the day is in summer-time, out in a field. There is, perhaps, no solitary sensation so exquisite as that of slumbering on the grass or hay, shaded from the hot sun by a tree, with the consciousness of a fresh but light air running through the wide atmosphere, and the sky stretching far overhead upon all sides. Earth, and heaven, and placid humanity seem to have the creation to themselves. There is nothing between the slumberer and the naked and glad innocence of nature.


crevice   裂け目
hush  なだめる
balmy 心地よい

biliary  胆汁を運ぶ
duct  導管
totter  揺れる

placid 穏やかな











On Carelessness






























ありました。 第2幕、第2場~第3場。












それにつけても、the  careless eyeとは手厳しい。


On the Knocking at the Gate in Machbeth

 From my boyish days I had always felt a great perplexity on one point in Machbeth; it was this: the knocking at the gate, which succeeds to the murder of Duncan, produced to my feelings an effect for which I never could account: the effect was – that it reflected back upon the murder a peculiar awfulness and a depth of solemnity: yet, however obstinately I endeavoured with my understanding to comprehend this, for many years I could never see why it should produce such an effect, –

 Oh! Mighty poet! – Thy works are not as those of other men, simply and merely great works of art; but are also like the phenomena of nature, like the sun and the sea, the stars and the flowers – like frost and snow, rain and dew, hail-storm and thunder, which are to be studied with entire submission of our own faculties, and in the perfect faith that in them there can be no too much or too little, nothing useless or inert – but that, the further we press in our discoveries, the more we shall see proofs of design and self-supporting arrangement where the careless eye had seen nothing but accident!


perplexity 困惑
solemnity 厳粛
obstinate 執拗な

hail-storm ひょうを伴う嵐


On Forgetfulness 





























On the Ignorance of the Learned

  For the more languages a man can speak,
  His talent has but sprung the greater leak;
  And, for the industry he has spent upon’t,
  Must full as much some other way discount.
  The Hebrew, Chaldee, and the Syriac
  Do, like their letters, set men’s reason back,
  And turns their wits that strive to understand it
  (Like those that write the characters) left-handed.
  Yet he that is but able to express
  No sense at all in several languages,
  Will pass for learneder than he that’s known
  To speak the strongest reason in his own.

 The description of persons who have the fewest ideas of all others are mere authors and readers. It is better to be able neither to read nor write than to be able to do nothing else. A lounger who is ordinarily seen with a book in his hand is (we may be almost sure) equally without the power or inclination to attend either to what passes around him or in his own mind. Such a one may be said to carry his understanding about with him in his pocket, or to leave it at home on his library shelves. He is afraid of venturing on any train of reasoning, or of striking out any observation that is not mechanically suggested to him by passing his eyes over certain legible characters; shrink from the fatigue of thought, which, for want of practice, becomes insupportable to him; and sits down contended with an endless, wearisome succession of words and half-formed images, which fill the void of the mind, continually efface one another. Learning is, in too many cases, but a foil to common sense; a substitute for true knowledge.

 The book-worm wraps himself up in his web of verbal generalities, and sees only the glimmering shadows of things reflected from the minds of others. Nature puts him out. The impressions of real objects, stripped of the disguises of words and voluminous roundabout descriptions, are blows that stagger him; their variety distracts, their rapidity exhausts him; and he turns from the bustle, the noise, and glare, and whirling motion of the world about him (which he has not an eye to follow in its fantastic changes, nor an understanding to reduce to fixed principles), to the quiet monotony of the dead languages, and the less startling and more intelligible combinations of the letters of the alphabet. It is well, it is perfectly well. ‘Leave me to my repose’, is the motto of the sleeping and the dead. You might as well ask the paralytic to leap from his chair, and throw away his crutch, or, without a miracle, to ‘take up his bed and walk’, as expect the learned reader to throw down his book and think for himself. He clings to it for his intellectual support; and his dread of being left to himself is like the horror of a vacuum. He can only breathe a learned atmosphere, as other men breathe common air. He is a borrower of sense. He has no idea of his own, and must live on those of other people. The habit of supplying our ideas from foreign sources ‘enfeebles all internal strength of thought’ as a course of dram-drinking destroys the tone of the stomach. The faculties of the mind, when not exerted, or when cramped by custom and authority, become listless torpid, and unfit for the purposes of thought or action.

 An idler at school, on the other hand, is one who has high health and spirits, who has the free use of his limbs, with all his wits about him, who feels the circulation of his blood and the motion of his heart, who is ready to laugh and cry in a breath, and who had rather chase a ball or a butterfly, feel the open air in his face, look at the fields or the sky, follow a winding path, or enter with eagerness into all the little conflicts and interests of his acquaintances and friends, than doze over a musty spelling-book, repeat barbarous distichs after his master, sit so many hours pinioned to a writing-desk and receive his reward for the loss of time and pleasure in paltry prize-medals at Christmas and Midsummer.

 Learning is the knowledge of that which is not generally known to others, and which we can only derive at second-hand from books or artificial sources. The knowledge of that which is before us, or about us, which appeals to our experience, passions, and pursuits, to the bosoms and business of men, is not learning. Learning is the knowledge of that which none but the learned know. He is the most learned man who knows the most of what is farthest removed from common life and actual observation, that is of the least practical utility, and least liable to be brought to the test of experience, and that, having been handed down through the greatest number of intermediate stages, is full of uncertainty, difficulties, and contradictions. It is seeing with the eyes of others, hearing with their ears, and pinning our faith on their understandings.

 A mere scholar, who knows nothing but books, must be ignorant even of them. ‘Book do not teach the use of books.’ How should he know anything of a work who knows nothing of the subject of it? The learned pedant is conversant with books only as they are made of other books, and those again of others, without end. He parrots those who have parroted others. He can translate the same word into ten different languages, but he knows nothing of the thing which it means in any one of them. He stuffs his head with authorities built on authorities, with quotations quoted from quotations, while he locks up his senses, his understanding, and his heart. He is unacquainted with the maxims and manners of the world; he is to seek in the characters of individuals.

 To conclude this subject. The most sensible people to be met wit in society are men of business and of the world, who argue from what they see and know, instead of spinning cobweb distinctions of what things ought to be. Women have often more of what is called good sense than men. They have fewer pretensions; are less implicated in theories; and judge of objects more form their immediate and involuntary impression on the mind, and, therefore, more truly and naturally. They cannot reason wrong; for they do not reason at all. They do not think or speak by rule; and they have in general more eloquence and wit as well as sense, on that account. By their wit, sense, and eloquence together, they generally contrive to govern their husbands (not for the booksellers), is better than that of most authors, – Uneducated people have most exuberance of invention and the greatest freedom from prejudice. Shakespeare’s was evidently an uneducated mind, both in the freshness of imagination and in the variety of his views; as Milton’s was scholastic, in the texture both of his thoughts and feelings. Shakespeare had not been accustomed to write themes at school in favour of virtue or against vice. To this we owe the unaffected but healthy tone of his dramatic morality, If we wish to know the force of human genius we should read Shakespeare. If we wish to see the insignificance of human learning we may study his commentators.


Chaldee  カルデア語
Syriac  古代ギリシャ語

inclination 傾向
legible 読める
wearisome  疲れさせる
void 空間
efface  擦って消す

glimmering かすかに光る
disguise 仮面
distract (心を)かき乱す
bustle   騒動
whirl 渦巻く
monotony 単調
paralytic 麻痺患者
enfeeble  虚弱にする
dram-drinking (ウイスキーなどを)ちびちび飲む(新英和)
cramp   締め付ける
listless   気乗りのしない
torpid   鈍い

doze まどろむ
musty かび臭い
barbarous 耳障りな
distich   対句
paltry   わずかな

pedant 学者ぶる人
conversant (古)親密な
parrot   おうむ返しに言う
quotation 引用
maxim   公理

exuberance   豊富
insignificance  無意味



















On Going a Journey

  One of the pleasant things in the world is going a journey; but I like to go by myself. I can enjoy society in a room; out of doors, nature is company enough for me. I am then never alone than when alone.

The fields his study, nature was his book,

  I cannot see the wit of walking, and talking at the same time. When I am in the country I wish to vegetate like the country. I am not for criticizing hedgerows and black cattle. I go out of town in order to forget the town and all that is in it. There are those who for this purpose go to watering-places, and carry the metropolis with them. I like more elbow-room and few encumbrances. I like solitude, when I give myself up to it, for the sake of solitude; nor do I ask for
a friend in my retreat,
Whom I may whisper solitude is sweet.

  The soul of a journey is liberty, perfect liberty, to think, feel, do just as one pleases. We go a journey chiefly to be free of all impediments and of all inconveniences, to leave ourselves behind, much more to get rid of others. It is because I want a little breathing space to muse on indifferent matters, where Contemplation

May plume her feathers and let grow her wings,
That in the various bustle of resort
Were all too ruffled, and sometimes impair’d.

That I absent myself from the town for a while, without feeling at a loss the moment I am left by myself. Instead of a friend in a post-chase or in a Tilbury, to exchange good things with, and vary the same stale topics over again, for once let me have a truce with impertinence. Give me the clear sky over my head, and the green turf beneath my feet, a winding road before me, and a three hours’ march to dinner – and then to thinking!

  In general, a good thing spoils out-of-door prospects; it should be reserved for Table-talk. Lamb is, for this reason I take it, the worst company in the world out of doors; because he is the best within. I grant there is one subject on which it is pleasant to talk on a journey, and that is, what one shall have for supper when we got to our inn at night. Open air improves this sort of conversation or friendly altercation, by setting a keener edge on appetite.

  There is hardly anything that shows the short-sightedness or capriciousness of the imagination more than traveling does. With change of place we can change our ideas; nay, our opinions and feelings. We can by an effort indeed transport ourselves to old and long-forgotten scenes, and then the picture of the mind revives again; but we forget those that have just left. It seems that we can think but of one place at a time. The canvas of the fancy is but a certain extent, and if we paint one set of objects upon it, they immediately efface every other. We cannot enlarge our conceptions, we only shift our point of view. The landscape bares its bosom to the enraptured eyes, we take our fill of it, and seem as if we could form no other image of beauty or grandeur. We pass on, and think no more of it; the horizon that shuts it from our sight also blots it from our memory like a dream. In traveling through a wild barren country I can form no idea of a woody and cultivated one. It appears to me that all the world must be barren, like what I see of it. In the country we forget the town, and in town we despise the country.

 As another exception to the above reasoning, I should not feel confident in venturing on a journey in a foreign country with out a companion. I should want at intervals to hear the sound of my own language. There is an involuntary antipathy in the mind of an Englishman to foreign manners and notions that requires the assistance of social sympathy to carry it off. As the distance from home increases, this relief, which was at first a luxury , becomes a passion and an appetite. A person would almost feel stifled to find himself in the deserts of Arabia without friends and countrymen: there must be allowed to be something in the view of Athens or old Rome that claims the utterance of speech; and I own that the Pyramids are too mighty for any single contemplation. In such situations, so opposite to all one’s ordinary train of ideas, one seems a species by one’s-self, a limb torn off from society, unless one can meet with instant fellowship and support.


vegetate 無為に過ごす
hedgerow 低木の生け垣
metropolis 大都市
elbow-room ゆとり
encumbrance 煩わしいもの
retreat 避難

impediment 妨害
post-chaise 四輪駅伝馬車
tilbury 二輪馬車
stale 古い
truce 停戦
impertinence 無遠慮

altercation 口論
viand (古)食物
turreted 小塔のある
straggle 点在する
fritter 浪費する
dribble たらたら流れる
goblet 満杯
inebriate 酔わせる
rasher ベーコンまたはハムの一皿
smother 蒸し焼きにする

capricious 移り気な
efface 拭い去る
bosom (文)胸
enrapture うっとりさせる
grandeur 荘厳
blot 拭き取る
despise さげすむ

stifle こらえる
limb 手























英随筆選・・・CHARLES LAMB(2)






The superannuated Man

  If peradventure, Reader, it has been thy lot to waste the golden years of thy life – they shining youth – in the irksome confinement of an office; to have thy prison days prolonged through middle-age down to decrepitude and silver hairs, without hope of release or respite; to have lived to forget that there are such things as holidays, or to remember them but as the prerogatives of childhood; then, and then only, will you be able to appreciate my deliverance.

  Independently of the rigours of attendance, I have ever been haunted with a sense (perhaps a mere caprice) of incapacity for business. Thus, during my latter years, had increased to such a degree, that it was visible in all the lines of my countenance. My health and my good spirits flagged. I had perpetually a dread of some crisis, to which I should be found unequal. Besides my daylight servitude, I served over again all night in my sleep, and would awake with terrors of imaginary false entries, errors in my accounts, and the like. I was fifty years of age, and no prospect of emancipation presented itself. I had grown to my desk, as it were; and the wood had entered into my soul.

  He went on to descant on the expendiency of retiring at a certain time of life (how my heart panted!), and asking me a few questions as to the amount of my own property, of which I had a little, ended with a proposal, to which his three partners nodded a grave assent, that I should accept from the house, which I had served so well, a pension for life to the amount of two-thirds of my accustomed salary – a magnificent offer! I do not know what I answered between surprise and gratitude, but it was understood that I accepted their proposal, and I was told that I was free from that hour to leave their services. I stammered out a bow, and at just ten minutes after eight I went home – for ever. This noble benefit – gratitude forbids me to conceal their names – I owe to the kindness of the most munificent firm in the world – the house of Boldero, Merryweather, Bosanquet, and Lacy.
        Esto perpetua!

  Time stands still in a manner to me. I have lost all distinction of season. I do not know the day of the week, or of the month. Each day used to be individually felt by me in its reference to the foreign post days; in its distance from, or propinquity to, the next Sunday. I had Wednesday feeling, my Saturday night’ sensations. The genius of each day was upon me distinctly during the whole of it, affecting my appetite, spirits, etc. The phantom of the next day, with a dreary five to follow, safe as a load upon my poor Sabbath recreations. What charm has washed the Ethiop white? – What is gone of Black Monday? All days are the same. Sunday itself – that unfortunate failure of a holiday as it too often proved, what with my sense of its fugitiveness, and over-care to get the greatest quantity of pleasure out of it – it melted down into a week day. I can spare to go to church now, without grudging the huge cantle which it used to seem to cut out of the holiday. I have Time for everything. I can visit a sick friend. I can interrupt the man of much occupation when he is busiest. I can insult over him with an invitation to take a day’s pleasure with me to Windsor this fine May-morning. It is Lucretian pleasure to behold the poor drudges, whom I have left behind in the world, carking and caring; like horses in a mill, drudging on in the same eternal round – and what is it for all? A man can never have too much Time to himself, nor too little to do. Had I a little son, I would christen him NOTHING-TO-DO; he should do nothing. Man, I verily believe, is out of his element as long as he is operative. I am altogether for the life contemplative. Will no kindly earthquake come and swallow up those accursed cotton mills? Take me that lumber of a desk there, and bowl it down
     As low as to the fiends,

  I am no longer – , clerk to the firm of, etc. I am Retired Leisure. I am to be met with in trim gardens. I am already come to be known by my vacant face and careless gesture, perambulating at no fixed pace nor with any settled purpose. I walk about; not to and from. They tell me, a certain cum dignitate air, that has been buried so long with my other good parts, has begun to shoot forth in my person. I grow into gentility perceptively. When I take up a newspaper it is to read the state of the opera. Opus operatum est. I have done all that I came into this world to do. I have worked task-work, and have the rest of the day to myself.


superannuated  退職した

decrepitude   老衰
respite   猶予
prerogative  特権
deliverance (意見の)公表

rigour   厳格
caprice   移り気
countenance  表情
perpetually  四六時中
unequal  不適当な
servitude  苦役
imaginary  想像上の
emancipation   解放

descant 詳述する
expediency  有利
pant   動悸する
assent  同意
accustomed  いつもの
gratitude  感謝
stammer どもりながら言う
munificent 気前のよい
Esto perpetua!  Perpetual のラテン語、esto は英語のbe. 永遠なれ!(私の推測です)

propinquity   時間的近さ
phantom   幽霊
dreary  陰鬱な
Sabbath  安息日
Ethiop  アフリカ黒人
fugitive  逃亡する
cantle (古)切れ端
Lucretia (ローマ伝説)ルクレチア(私はわかりません)
behold を見る
drudge  あくせく働く人
carking  (古) 気をもませる
verily (古風)まことに
contemplative  瞑想的な
accused  罪を問われた
fiend  悪魔
perambulate (古風) ぶらつく
cum dignitate cum は、~を伴った。dignitateはdignityのラテン語。
gentility  良家の生まれ
perceptive   感知する
Opus operatum ラテン語。opusはクラシックの作品番号として見かけます。operatum はoperateでしょう。



(3)のexceedingはexceedから過剰の意味がとれます。旺文社中辞典にも研究社新英和にも出ていません。SODには、an excess,a surplusとしっかり出ています。


例えば、Potters‘s Bar。Potterは載っていますが、Potters‘s Barはありません。leaは古語で草原とありますが、the Leaはありません。





このOld Chinaは、貧しい暮らしが一番だと言っています。しかし赤貧は嫌だそうです。賛成!


Old China

  ‘I wish the goof old times would come again,’ she said, ‘when we were not quite rich. I do not mean that I want to be poor; but that there was a middle state’ – so she was pleased to ramble on – ‘in which I am sure we were a great deal happier. A purchase is but a purchase, now that you have money enough and to spare. Fortunately it used to be a triumph. When we coveted a cheap luxury (and O! how much ado I had to get you to consent in those times!) – we were used to have a debate two or three days before, and to weigh the for and against, and think what we might spare it out of, and what saving we could hit upon, that should be an equivalent. A thing was worth buying then, when we felt the money that we paid for it.

  ‘Then, do you remember our pleasant walks to Enfield, and Potter’s Bar, and Waltham, when we had a holyday – holydays, and all other fun, are gone, now we are rich – and the little hand-basket in which I used to deposit our day’s fare of savoury cold lamb and salad – and how you would pry about at noon-tide for some decent house, where we might go in, and produce our store – only paying for the ale that you must call for – and speculate upon the looks of the landlady, and whether she was likely to allow us a table-cloth – and wish for such another honest, as Izaak Walton has described many a one on the pleasant banks of the Lea, when he went a-fishing – and sometimes they would prove obliging enough , and sometimes they would look grudging upon us – but we had cheerful looks still for one another, and would eat our plain food savourly, scarecely grudging Piscator his Trout Hall? Now, - when we go out a day’s pleasing, which is seldom moreover、we ride part of the way – and go into a fine inn, and order the best of dinners, never debating the expense – which, after all, never half the relish of those chance country snaps, when we were at the mercy of ]uncertain usage, and a precarious welcome.

  ‘There was pleasure in eating strawberries, before they became quite common – in the first dish of peas, while were yet dear – to have them for a nice supper, a treat. What treat can we have now? If we were to treat ourselves now – that is, to have dainties a little above our means, it would be selfish and wicked. It is very little more that we allow ourselves beyond what the actual poor can get at, that makes what I call a treat – when two people living together, as we have done, now and then indulge themselves in a cheap luxury, which both like; while each apologizes, and is willing to take both halves of the blame to his single share. I see no harm in people in making much of themselves in that sense of the word. It may give them a hint how to make much of others. But now – what I mean by the word – we never do make much of ourselves. Non but the poor can do it. I do not mean the veriest poor of all, but persons as we were, just above poverty.

  ‘I know what you were going to say, that it is mighty pleasant at the end of the year to make all meet, - and much ado we used to have every Thirty-first Night of December to account for our exceedings – many a long face did you make over your puzzled accounts, - and in contriving to make it out how we had spent so much – or that we had not spent so much – or that it was impossible we should spend so much next year – and still we found our slender capital decreasing – but then, betwixt ways, and projects, and compromises of one sort or another, and talk of curtailing this charge, and doing without that for the future – and the hope that youth brings, and laughing spirits (in which you were never poor till now) we pocketed up our loss, and in conclusion, with “lusty brimmers” as you used to quote it out of hearty cheerful Mr.Cotton (as you called him), we used to welcome in the “coming guest”. Now we have no reckoning at all at the end of the old year – no flattering promises about the new year doing better for us.


ramble とりとめなく話す
covet  vt. 1.他人の物などをむやみにほしがる
    vi.ひどくほしがる[for, after]
    1.To desire; esp. to desire eagerly, long for.
2.To desire with concupiscence
3.To desire culpably; to long for(what is another’s). (The ordinary sense.)
 4.To lust; also with for, after
ado 騒ぎ

fare (古風)ごちそう
savoury 味のよい
pry 様子をうかがう
ale (古)ビール
Izaak Walton 随筆家、「釣魚大全」の著者
grudging しぶしぶながらの
piscator 釣り人
grudge ねたむ
precarious (古)人頼みの

dainty  美味
veriest  まったくの

slender 乏しい
betwixt (古)between
curtail 削減する
lusty  元気な
brimmer なみなみと注いだ杯
Mr Cotton  John Cotton。英国生まれの清教徒牧師。
flattering  気休めの




















その中で、いかにも権威がありそうな名前に惹かれて、Web 漢文大系をクリック。


飲(の)まんと欲(ほっ)すれば 琵琶(びわ) 馬上(ばじょう)に催(もよお)す。

o琵琶 … 弦楽器の一つ。
o催 … (琵琶を)弾き始める。



























National Prejudices

 As I am of that sauntering tribe of mortals, who spend the greatest part of their time in taverns, coffee-houses, and other places of public resort, I have thereby an opportunity of observing an infinite variety of characters, which, to a person of a contemplative turn, is a much higher entertainment than a view of all the curiosities of art or nature. In one of these, my late rambles, I accidentally fell into the company of half a dozen gentlemen, who were engaged in a warm dispute about some political affair; the decision of which, as they were equally divided in their sentiments, they thought proper to refer to me, which naturally drew me in for a share of the conversation.

 Amongst a multiplicity of other topics, we took occasion to talk of different characters of the several nations of Europe; when one of the gentlemen, cocking his hat, and assuming such an air of importance as if he had possessed all the merit of the English nation in his own person, declared that the Dutch were a parcel of avaricious wretches; the French a set of flattering sycophants; that the Germans were drunken sots, and beastly gluttons; and the Spaniards proud, haughty, and surly tyrants; but that in bravery, generosity, clemency, and in every other virtue, the English excelled all the rest of the world.

 This very learned and judicious remark was received with a general smile of approbation by all the company-all, I mean, but your humble servant; who endeavouring to keep my gravity as well as I could, and reclining my head upon my arm, continued for some time in a posture of affected thoughtfulness, as if I had been musing on something else, and did not seem to attend to the subject of conversation; hoping by these means to avoid the disagreeable necessity of explaining myself…

  But my pseudo-patriot had no mind to let me escape so easily. Not satisfied that his opinion should pass without contradiction, he was determined to have it ratified by the suffrage of every one in the company; for which purpose addressing himself to me with an air of inexpressive confidence, he asked me if I was not of the same way of thinking. As I am never forward in giving my opinion, especially when I have reason to believe that it will not be agreeable; so, when I am obliged to give it, I always hold it for a maxim to speak my real sentiments. I therefore told him that, for my own part, I should not have ventured to talk in such a peremptory strain, unless I had made the tour of Europe, and examined the manners of these several nations with great care and accuracy: that, perhaps, a more impartial judge would not scruple to affirm that the Dutch were more frugal and industrious, the French more temperate and polite, the Germans more hardy and patient of labour and fatigue, the Spaniards more staid and sedate, than the English; who, though undoubtedly brave and generous, were at the same time rash, headstrong, and impetuous; too apt to be elated with prosperity, and to despond in adversity.

  Is it not very possible that I may love my own country, without hating the natives of other counties? that I may exert the most heroic bravery, the most undaunted resolution, in defending its laws and liberty, without despising all the rest of the world as cowards and poltroons? Most certainly it is; and if it were not - But why need I suppose what is absolutely impossible? - But if it were not, I must own, I should prefer the title of the ancient philosopher, viz. a citizen of the world, to that of Englishman, a Frenchman, a European, or to any other appellation whatever.


saunter  怠けて遊んでいる
tavern   居酒屋
contemplative  熟考する
ramble  ぶらつき

multiplicity  多様性
cock  気取って斜めにかぶる
parcel  一群
avaricious  強欲な
wretch  恥知らず
flattering  お世辞のうまい
sycophant  おべっか使い
sot  飲んだくれ
glutton  大食漢
haughty  横柄な
surly  気難しい
bravery  勇気
generosity  寛容
clemency  温情

learned  学識のある
judicious  思慮分別のある
approbation  賛成
affected  うわべの

pseudo-  偽の
suffrage (投票による)賛成
maxim  処世訓
peremptory  有無を言わせぬ
impartial  偏見のない
scruple  ちゅうちょする
frugal  倹約する
industrious  勤勉な
temperate  節度のある
staid  落ち着いた
sedate  冷静な
headstrong  片意地な
impetuous  性急な
elate  得意がらせる
despond  落胆する
adversity  不運

undaunted  不屈の
poltroon  臆病者
viz. (ラテン)すなわち
appellation  呼称


































Recollections of Childhood

 There are those among mankind, who can enjoy no relish of their being, except the world is made acquainted with all that relates to them, and think everything lost that passes unobserved; but others find a solid delight in stealing by the crowd, and modelling their life after such a manner, as is much above the approbation as the practice of the vulgar. Life being too short to give instances great enough of true friendship or good will, some sages have thought it pious to preserve a certain reverence for the name of their deceased friends; and have withdrawn themselves from the rest of the world at certain seasons, to commemorate in their own thoughts such of their acquaintance who have gone before them out of this life. And indeed, when we are advanced in years, there is not a more pleasing entertainment, than to recollect in a gloomy moment the many we have parted with, that have been dear and agreeable to us, and to cast a melancholy thought or two after those, with whom, perhaps, we have indulged ourselves in whole nights of mirth and jolly.

 We, that are very old, are better able to remember things which befell us in our distant youth, than the passages of later days. For this reason it is, that the companions of my strong and vigorous years present themselves more immediately to me in this office of sorrow. Ultimately and unhappily deaths are what are most apt to lament; so little are we able to make it indifferent when a thing happens, though we know it must happen. Thus we groan under life, and bewail those who are relieved from it. Every object that returns to our imagination raises different passions, according to the circumstance of their departure. Who can have lived in an army, and in a serious hour reflect upon the many gay and agreeable men that might long have flourished in the arts of peace, and not join with the imprecations of the fatherless and widows on the tyrant to whose ambition they fell sacrifices? But gallant men, who are cut off by the sword , move rather our veneration than our pity; and we gather relief enough from their own contempt of death, to make that no evil, which was approached with so much cheerfulness, and attended with so much honour. But when we turn our thoughts from the great parts of life on such occasions, and instead of lamenting those who stood ready to give death to those from whom they had the fortune to receive it; I say, when we let our thoughts wander from such noble objects, and consider the havoc which is made among the tender and the innocent, pity enters with an unmixed softness, and possesses all our souls at once.


approbation  是認
vulgar 民衆
reverence  崇敬
mirth  陽気な騒ぎ
jollity  楽しさ

befall  身に起こる
lament  悼む
indifferent  無関心な
bewail  嘆く
imprecation  呪い
gallant  勇敢な
veneration  崇拜
havoc  大破壊
unmixed  純粋の








ひさかたの 光のどけき 春の日に
    静心なく 花の散るらむ























On Death

 The autumn with its fruits provides disorders for us, and the winter’s cold turns into sharp diseases, and the spring brings flowers to stew our hearse, and the summer gives green turf nad brambles to bind upon our graves.

 It is a mighty change that is made by the death of every person, and it is visible to us who are alive. Reckon but from the sprightfulness of youth and the fair cheeks and the full eyes of childhood, from the vigorousness and strong flexure of the joints of five and twenty, to the hollowness and dead paleness, to the loathsomeness and horror of a three days’burial, and shall perceive the distance to be very great and very strange. But so I have seen a rose newly springing from the clefts of its hood, and at first it was fair as the morning, and full with the dew of heaven as a lamb’s fleece: but when a ruder breath had forced open its virgin modesty, and dismantled its too youthful and unripe retirements, it began to put on darkness, and to decline to softness and the symptoms of a sickly age; it bowed the head, and broke its stalk; and at night having lost some of its leaves and all its beauty, it fell into the portion of weeds and outworn faces.

 Then calamity is great, and sorrow rules in all the capacities of man; then the mourners weep, because it is civil, or because they need thee, or because they fear: but who suffers for thee with a compassion sharp as is thy pain? Then the noise is like the faint echo of distant valley, and few hear, and they will not regard thee, who seemest like a person void of understanding, and of a departing interest.


strew 振りまく
hearse 棺架

sprightful(ness) 活発な
vigorous(ness) 精力的な
flexure 柔軟性 (flex-ure)
loathsome(ness) 忌まわしい
cleft くぼみ
fleece 刈り取られた羊毛
dismantle 取り除く

calamity 災難
mourner 会葬者

strong flexure of the joints of five and twenty















ひさかたの 光のどけき 春の日に
    静心なく 花の散るらむ



































Of Travel

  Travel, in the younger sort, is a part of education; in the elder, a part of experience. He that travelleth into a country, before he hath some entrance into the language, goeth to school, and not to travel. That young men travel under some tutor or grave servant, I allow well; so that he be such a one that hath the language, and hath been in the country before; whereby he may be able to tell them what things are worthy to be seen in the country where they go, what acquaintances they are to seek, what exercises or discipline the place yieldeth; for else young men shall go hooded, and look abroad little.

 When a traveller returneth home, let him not leave the countries where he hath travelled altogether behind him, but maintain a correspondence by letters with those of his acquaintance which are of most worth; and let his travel appear in his discourse than in his apparel or gesture; and in his discourse let him be rather advised in his answers, than forward to tell stories: and let it appear that he doth not change his country manners for those of foreign parts; but only prick in some flowers of that he hath learned abroad into the customs of his own country.


 First, Bacon, the father of the English Essay, who would fail to recognize most of his descendants. Bacon’s compact, laconic style suggests the kinship between the word ‘essay’ and the mineralogist’s word ‘assay’; for the handful of carefully-washed words which come out in one of Bacon’s Essays puts one in mind of the prospector sluicing away the grit until a few clear specks of gold are left in the bottom of his pan.



discourse 話
prick 移植する


descendant 子孫
laconic  簡明な
kinship 血族関係
mineralogist 採鉱者
assey 試金
sluice  (砂金を)流し樋で採取する
grit 粗粒砂岩
speck 微小片