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老いの一筆

Fair is foul, and foul is fair – Macbeth Act 1 SceneⅠ・・・きれいはきたない、きたないはきれい

碁盤 - 榧と本榧

私の足付き碁盤は、漢字の姿から推して、多分私が生まれる前のものだろう。

(現)  (旧)
将棋 - 將
総て - 總
両木口 - 两
専門 - 專
区 - 區
徳三郎 - 德

名古屋の碁盤店に本物の榧碁盤であると認められた。

最近は本物の榧を本榧と呼ばなければならない。

偽榧が横行しているからだ。

この偽榧、どうやらスプルースであるらしい。

この碁盤の時代はそういった偽物がなかった。

古き良き時代である。

附:
ワサビも、偽ワサビの出現で本ワサビと言われるようになった。


(桐の覆いに貼られている)










米語のレッスン - 楽しかった4カ月

10月第4回をもって最終回とした。

米語の発音が正しくできるようになったことが一つ、リンキングやリダクションがネイティブ・スピーカー間に生じるだけであることを知ったことが一つ、この二つの理由である。

ここでいう発音とは、一語一語の発音であって、文章をスラスラと米語発音で朗読できるということではない。

今でも、ちょっとした文章はつっかえる。それは仕方のないことと悟っている。

リンキング・リダクションはアメリカ映画を字幕無しで楽しむつもりがないので、ヒアリングの訓練は不要だし、アメリカに行って若者と冗談を言い合うつもりもないから、スピーキングの訓練も不要だ。

今は、60余年付き合ってきたイギリス英語の発音が、とげとげしく聞こえるようになった。

それが今回のレッスンが有意義であったことの証明となっている。

サンキュー、サンキュー、サンキュー、M先生!

附:
1.島の先生がアメリカ英語の模範的発音者であるから、米語発音を習っただけで、もしも先生がイギリス英語であったら、英語発音を習った。 “実用”が目的でなく、“好奇心”が動機だったからだ。
2.200年前のイギリス随筆を米語の発音で読んでも違和感はないと、先生が言われた。それもあって、いつの間にか、英文学専攻もどきになってしまった。






クロスバイク

昨日は快晴だったが、風が強かった。

今日はそれほど風がない。

先日の不調は、空気が抜けていたためだからだ。パンパンに入れた。

午後1時、県道を走る。

そのつもりが、見事裏切られた。

やはり坂はきつい。

半分乗って、半分押してやっと貯水槽のところまでたどり着いた。

そこから今日の目標の網小医院まではほぼ平坦だから行けないことはなかったが、息切れがし始めたので、やめにした。

帰りはらくちん。ブレーキをかけなければ30キロはでる。

行きはよいよい帰りは恐い。

行きはつらいが、帰りはスイスイ。

附:
リボーンの期間中、ロードバイクの若者を船着き場で何度か見かけた。彼らにとって、県道4キロは物足りなかったろう。







American English   4th Lesson of October

Wilde
先生が全文、ゆっくり読む。私はアンダーラインの部分を発声する。
26番
何回も繰り返し読む価値がないことを一度も読まないでどうしてわかるのか、先生といろいろ話した。私は少なくとも最初の50ページ位は読まなければ、価値があるかどうか判断しかねるのではないかと思っている。

短文の760番。
go game は一般的でないから、“go”に代える方がいいとの教え。辞書のsoccerを私の趣味の碁に置き換えたもの。このgo は英語化していると辞書にあった。発祥の地中国を差し置いて、日本語が優位に立ったのは、囲碁の伝統を日本がしっかり守っていたからだ。中国、韓国にコテンパンにやられている今日を江戸の名人はどんなに嘆きかつ怒っていることか。

エッセイ
アンダーラインの所を先生が読んで、私が復唱する。
以下の文。
When we wind up a clock, that is out of order, to make it go well for the future, we do not immediately set the hand to the present instant, but we make it strike the round of all its hours, before it can recover the regularity of its time.
これも先生と検討したが、二人とも納得いかないまま終わった。英語それ自体は難しくないが解釈ができない文がある。これはその見本のようなもの。昔の時計の仕組みは分からないということで終わりにした。


(大雨の翌朝。水蒸気でさながら水墨画の世界)

P1100277.jpg


~~~~~

American English   4th Lesson of October


1.
Sound Practice
Oscar Wilde

2.
Plain Sentences
701-800

3.
Essay
“Recollections of Childhood”
by Richard Steele 1672-1729

4. Word Cards 5
M N O

~~~~~

1.
SOUND PRACTICE


Oscar Wilde  1854-1900
Quotes

1
“Always forgive your enemies; nothing annoys them so much.”–
2
“Be yourself; everyone else is already taken.”
3
“To live is the raresrt thing in the world. Most people exist, that is all.”
9
“With freedom, books, flowers, and the moon, who could not be happy?”
12
“It is absurd to divide people into good and bad. People are either charming or tedious.”
21
“A man’s face is his autobiography. A woman’s face is her work of fiction.”
26
“If one cannot enjoy reading a book over and over again, there is no use in reading it at all.”
31
“I don’t want to go to heaven. None of my friends are there.”
37
“I am not young enough to know everything.”
50
“Anybody can sympathise with the sufferings of a friend, but it requires a very fine nature to sympathise with a friend’s success.”
51
“The world is a stage and the play is badly cast.”
54
“There are only two kinds of people who are really fascinating: people who know absolutely everything, and people who know absolutely nothing.”
56
“Nowadays people know the price of everything and the value of nothing.”
65
“Live! Live the wonderful life that is in you! Let nothing be lost upon you. Be always searching for new sensations. Be afraid of nothing.”
68
“It takes a great deal of courage to see the world in all its tainted glory, and still to love it.”
69
“What seems to us as bitter trials are often blessings in disguise.”
70
“No man is rich enough to buy back his past.”
72
“The old believe everything, the middle aged suspect everything, the young know everything.” –
73
“An idea that is not dangerous is unworthy of being called an idea at all.”
74
“Moderation is a fatal thing. Nothing succeeds like excess.”
76
“One should always play fairly when one has the winning cards.”
77
“Everything popular is wrong.”
78
“I have the simplest tastes. I am always satisfied with the best.”


2.
PLAIN SENTENCES 701-800


701 Each plan presented had its merits and demerits.
702 That’s one way to do it.
703 There are certain rules for negotiations.
704 I don’t get up at any fixed time.
705 Please don’t waste even one drop of water.
706 Happiness is, in a way, like a shadow.
707 Come and see me any time you like.
708 I’m available any time next week.
709 He always says the same thing.
710 Many students fail entrance exams by a single point.

711 The doctor persisted in saying that his diagnosis was correct.
712 My condition is worsening steadily.
713 A big earthquake could hit Miyagi region at any time.
714 She was unusually exhilarated that day.
715 Fall crept in without our knowing it.
716 Monet and his school are called the Impressionists.
717 Can I have another cup of coffee?
718 We talked a lot over a drink.
719 I’ve had enough.
720 I’m full.

721 The newlyweds looked as happy as could be.
722 I have a lot to do this afternoon.
723 Jane’s apartment was filled with books.
724 We will stay in Philadelphia all next month.
725 We are nicely taken in by her.
726 I’ll make an overnight trip to Izu in December.
727 That’s a matter of common knowledge.
728 Children usually don’t like to stay at home.
729 The general public is not aware of that fact.
730 Generally, Italian cars are popular overseas.

731 Drop me a line when you get to Singapore.
732 There was not a cloud in the sky.
733 He’s an out-and-out fan of rock music.
734 You cannot do them all at one time.
735 The novel was so interesting I couldn’t put it down.
736 My feet hurt so much I can’t walk another step.
737 This is a one-way street.
738 Far from falling, the land price goes on rising.
739 In the meantime the ant was busy preparing for the winter.
740 His opinion is one-sided.

751 They unilaterally declared an end to the talks.
752 She wants her son to become an independent adult soon.
753 By when should I give an answer?
754 When’s the latest I can let you know?
755 It is a waste of time to wait endlessly.
756 You can keep it as long as you like.
757 You should not brood endlessly over what’s been done.
758 I always get up at seven in the morning.
759 He’s grumbling all the time.
760 We play go game every Saturday afternoon.

761 She never says what she thinks.
762 On that day I got up an hour earlier than usual.
763 He waited for her at the usual place.
764 There are many humorous anecdotes about her.
765 I would like you to hear him out on his true feelings.
766 It is freezing cold tonight.
767 He moved from the center of the city to the suburbs.
768 Is baldness hereditary?
769 The thread breaks where it is weakest.
770 He went back over his faint memory of the incident.

771 What was his intention?
772 The well has run dry.
773 It will take more than one man to move that car.
774 His works show his deep attachment for nature.
775 She spares no expense on dress.
776 Ben will pay any price for a good car.
778 Whether or not it is true I do not know.
779 Please give me your answer within a week.
780 They speak with a country accent.

781 Now that she’s gone, I feel no more attachment to life.
782 The moment he saw the teacher, he ran away.
783 There are many small islands south of Tanegashima.
784 Please initial here.
785 Is your dog a he or a she?
786 It’s my pleasure to walk the dog.
787 Many young men lost their lives for nothing in the battle.
788 Mr. Nixon was the first to come.
789 The vaccine saved his life.
790 While there is life, there is hope.

791 I swam across the river at the risk of my life.
792 I’ll devote all my efforts to the job.
793 This ferry is the islander’s only link with the outside world.
794 He doesn’t know much of the world.
795 They prayed earnestly for the dead.
796 We wish you all the best.
797 That’s a violation against the law.
798 Constant criticism may distort the character.
799 Her face showed that she was doubtful about the news.
800 If you doubt, take a look for yourself.


3.
Essay

Recollections of Childhood


By Richard Steele (1672–1729)


THERE are those among mankind, who can enjoy no relish of their being, except the world is made acquainted with all that relates to them, and think everything lost that passes unobserved: but others find a solid delight in stealing by the crowd, and modelling their life after such a manner, as is as much above the approbation, as the practice of the vulgar. Life being too short to give instances great enough of true friendship or goodwill, some sages have thought it pious to preserve a certain reverence for the names of their deceased friends; and have withdrawn themselves from the rest of the world at certain seasons to commemorate in their own thoughts such of their acquaintance who have gone before them out of this life. And indeed, when we are advanced in years, there is not a more pleasing entertainment, than to recollect in a gloomy moment the many we have parted with, that have been dear and agreeable to us, and to cast a melancholy thought or two after those with whom, perhaps, we have indulged ourselves in whole nights of mirth and jollity. With such inclinations in my heart, I went to my closet yesterday in the evening, and resolved to be sorrowful; upon which occasion I could not but look with disdain upon myself, that though all the reasons which I had to lament the loss of many of my friends, are now as forcible as at the moment of their departure, yet did not my heart swell with the same sorrow, which I felt at that time; but I could, without tears, reflect upon many pleasing adventures I had had with some, who have long been blended with common earth. Though it is by the benefit of nature, that length of time thus blots out the violence of afflictions; yet, with tempers too much given to pleasure, it is almost necessary to revive the old places of grief in our memory; and ponder step by step on past life, to lead the mind into that sobriety of thought which poises the heart, and makes it beat with due time, without being quickened with desire, or retarded with despair, from its proper and equal motion. When we wind up a clock, that is out of order, to make it go well for the future, we do not immediately set the hand to the present instant, but we make it strike the round of all its hours, before it can recover the regularity of its time. Such, thought I, shall be my method this evening; and since it is that day of the year which I dedicate to the memory of such in another life as I much delighted in when living, an hour or two shall be sacred to sorrow and their memory, while I run over all the melancholy circumstances of this kind which have occurred to me in my whole life.

The first sense of sorrow I ever knew was upon the death of my father, at which time I was not quite five years of age; but was rather amazed at what all the house meant, than possessed with a real understanding why nobody was willing to play with me. I remember I went into the room where his body lay, and my mother sat weeping alone by it. I had my battledore in my hand, and fell a beating the coffin, and calling “Papa”; for, I knew not how, I had some slight idea that he was locked up there. My mother catched me in her arms, and transported beyond all patience of the silent grief she was before in, she almost smothered me in her embraces; and told me in a flood of tears, Papa could not hear me, and would play with me no more, for they were going to put him under ground, whence he could never come to us again. She was a very beautiful woman, of a noble spirit, and there was a dignity in her grief amidst all the wildness of her transport; which, methought, struck me with an instinct of sorrow, that, before I was sensible of what it was to grieve, seized my very soul, and has made pity the weakness of my heart ever since. The mind in infancy is, methinks, like the body in embryo; and receives impressions so forcible, that they are as hard to be removed by reason, as any mark with which a child is born is to be taken away by any future application. Hence it is, that good-nature in me is no merit; but having been so frequently overwhelmed with her tears before I knew the cause of any affliction, or could draw defences from my own judgment, I imbibed commiseration, remorse, and an unmanly gentleness of mind, which has since insnared me into ten thousand calamities; and from whence I can reap no advantage, except it be, that, in such a humour as I am now in, I can the better indulge myself in the softnesses of humanity, and enjoy that sweet anxiety which arises from the memory of past afflictions.

We, that are very old, are better able to remember things which befell us in our distant youth, than the passages of later days. For this reason it is, that the companions of my strong and vigorous years present themselves more immediately to me in this office of sorrow. Untimely or unhappy deaths are what we are most apt to lament; so little are we able to make it indifferent when a thing happens, though we know it must happen. Thus we groan under life, and bewail those who are relieved from it. Every object that returns to our imagination raises different passions, according to the circumstance of their departure. Who can have lived in an army, and in a serious hour reflect upon the many gay and agreeable men that might long have flourished in the arts of peace, and not join with the imprecations of the fatherless and widow on the tyrant to whose ambition they fell sacrifices? But gallant men, who are cut off by the sword, move rather our veneration than our pity; and we gather relief enough from their own contempt of death, to make it no evil, which was approached with so much cheerfulness, and attended with so much honour. But when we turn our thoughts from the great parts of life on such occasions, and instead of lamenting those who stood ready to give death to those from whom they had the fortune to receive it; I say, when we let our thoughts wander from such noble objects, and consider the havoc which is made among the tender and the innocent, pity enters with an unmixed softness, and possesses all our souls at once.

Here (were there words to express such sentiments with proper tenderness) I should record the beauty, innocence, and untimely death, of the first object my eyes ever beheld with love. The beauteous virgin! how ignorantly did she charm, how carelessly excel. O death! thou hast right to the bold, to the ambitious, to the high, and to the haughty; but why this cruelty to the humble, to the meek, to the undiscerning, to the thoughtless? Nor age, nor business, nor distress, can erase the dear image from my imagination. In the same week, I saw her dressed for a ball, and in a shroud. How ill did the habit of death become the pretty trifler! I still behold the smiling earth—A large train of disasters were coming on to my memory, when my servant knocked at the closet door, and interrupted me with a letter, attended with a hamper of wine, of the same sort with that which is to be put to sale on Thursday next, at Garraway’s coffee-house. Upon the receipt of it, I sent for three of my friends. We are so intimate, that we can be company in whatever state of mind we meet, and can entertain each other without expecting always to rejoice. The wine we found to be generous and warming, but with such a heat as moved us rather to be cheerful than frolicksome. It revived the spirits, without firing the blood. We commended it until two of the clock this morning; and having to-day met a little before dinner, we found, that though we drank two bottles a man, we had much more reason to recollect than forget what had passed the night before.


4.
WORD CARDS 5


- M -

maenad
magistrate
malaise
malevolent
mar
matron
mattock
mawkish
meander
mediocre
mendicant
mentor
mercenary
meretricious
metamorphosis
meticulous
milieu
moat
moldy
molest
nolify
monograph
morbid
moribund
mortify
mote
mug
multifarious
mundane
mutation
mutt


- N –

nag
namby-pamby
nausea
nebula
nettle
neural
neurotic
nicety
niggard
nimble
nincompoop
nobble
noisome
nondescript
nook
nosegay


- O –
-
oaf
obase
obscenity
obsequious
obtrusive
odious
ogle
ominous
oodles
ophthalmologist
opportune
ordination
out-and-out

2019/10/21

American English   3rd Lesson of October

すべて順調。

米語の発音がレッスンの動機だったが、いつのまにやら、英国エッセイに戻ってしまった。

前と違って、いい加減なブリティッシュ英語の発音でなく米国人のチェック済みの米語発音でエッセイを読むことができるようになった。

~~~~~

American English   3rd Lesson of October


1.
Pronunciation
発音記号による

2.
Plain Sentences
601-700

3.
Essay
“The English Language”
by Joseph Addison

4. Word Cards 4
I J K L


~~~~~
1 Pronunciation

発音Oct 3rd


2 PLAIN SENTENCES 601-700

601 Mary is very quick to understand.
602 That observatory stands in a good location.
603 We’d better change the position of this table.
604 Hibiya Park lies in the center of Tokyo.
605 What prefecture is north of Miyagi Prefecture?
606 The next market is on the 30th.
607 I can’t be bothered to keep every detail in mind.
608 This will do for the moment.
609 I’ve looked over all the pages.
610 I’ll take a chance and try to steal third.

611 I saw a herd of cattle in the pen.
612 It is no easy thing to master an art.
613 Once I was crazy about fishing.
614 It was in 1914 that World War I broke out.
615 She always does things like that.
616 I’m just a bit better than my wife at driving.
617 His improvement in golf is striking.
618 Work is my Dad’s whole life.
619 They claim that they are descendants of Heike clan.
620 He made a fortune in his lifetime.

621 A man dies, his name remains.
622 What if the teacher found out about this!
623 This year it is especially cold.
624 I’ve solved the problem for the time being.
625 Where does he stand in the literary world?
626 You must not be discouraged by a single failure.
627 I’ll explain it to you once more.
628 I would like to see the author some time.
629 This novel is worth reading.
630 He went there every other day.

631 You’ve had quite a day.
632 Rome was not built in a day.
633 I can’t memorize the lines in a day or two.
634 This sushi is 1,000 yen a head.
635 Please call me first thing tomorrow.
636 Rest is the best thing for a cold.
637 I like cosmoses the best of all flowers.
638 She ate only a small part of the cake.
639 Let me join the project, too.
640 The boy escaped death with quick treatment.

641 It was foggy all around.
642 This shows one aspect of his character.
643 The whole situation has changed overnight.
644 The golf player found herself a star overnight.
645 My brother has a weak digestion.
646 We listed all the books we want to buy this year.
647 Those problems cannot be solved in the same manner.
648 It’s his own characteristic way of thinking.
649 I’ll contact you in a day or two.
650 How soon can we meet again?

651 When’s a good day?
652 I went there sometime last year.
653 He will be sorry for it some day.
654 Could you say it one more time?
656 Even the strongest champion will lose sooner or later.
657 When does your summer vacation begin?
658 He says one thing and does another.
659 Everybody agrees that his work is first-rate.
670 That historical sight is worth seeing.

671 Seeing is believing.
672 It seemed an easy task at first sight.
673 The exploratory party has just arrived at Narita.
674 The negotiations don’t make any progress at all.
675 I will leave everything to you.
676 This fruit has a unique flavor.
677 It all happened in a moment.
678 How much will that be altogether?
679 What about taking a walk with me?
680 He remained single throughout his life.

681 Life is often compared to a voyage.
682 It is her lifelong desire to study music in Germany.
683 The section chief laughed away my proposal.
684 He worked very hard.
685 Let’s forget everything and start anew.
686 I quit my job for personal reasons.
687 The professor’s condition still hangs in the balance.
688 I could not see an inch ahead due to the dense fog.
689 He quoted a paragraph from “Snow Country”.
690 It will get still colder from now on.

691 Climbing a mountain makes you feel at one with nature.
692 I wonder what young people nowadays are thinking about.
693 There are many stray cats in this neighborhood.
694 Once I have made up my mind, I never give up.
695 Rumors and facts do not always agree.
696 Theory and practice do not necessarily go together.
697 He and I are of the same opinion.
698 Who came in first in the 100-meter dash?
699 She suffered a high fever all day and night.
700 You can’t master good manners in a short period.


3 ESSAY

THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE

     by Joseph Addison (1672-1719)


_Est brevitate opus_, _ut currat sententia_,

HOR., _Sat._ i. 10, 9.

Let brevity despatch the rapid thought.

I have somewhere read of an eminent person who used in his private offices of devotion to give thanks to Heaven that he was born a Frenchman: for my own part I look upon it as a peculiar blessing that I was born an Englishman. Among many other reasons, I think myself very happy in my country, as the language of it is wonderfully adapted to a man who is sparing of his words, and an enemy to loquacity.

As I have frequently reflected on my good fortune in this particular, I shall communicate to the public my speculations upon the English tongue, not doubting but they will be acceptable to all my curious readers.

The English delight in silence more than any other European nation, if the remarks which are made on us by foreigners are true. Our discourse is not kept up in conversation, but falls into more pauses and intervals than in our neighbouring countries; as it is observed that the matter of our writings is thrown much closer together, and lies in a narrower compass, than is usual in the works of foreign authors; for, to favour our natural taciturnity, when we are obliged to utter our thoughts we do it in the shortest way we are able, and give as quick a birth to our conceptions as possible.

This humour shows itself in several remarks that we may make upon the English language. As, first of all, by its abounding in monosyllables, which gives us an opportunity of delivering our thoughts in few sounds. This indeed takes off from the elegance of our tongue, but at the same time expresses our ideas in the readiest manner, and consequently answers the first design of speech better than the multitude of syllables which make the words of other languages more tuneable and sonorous. The sounds of our English words are commonly like those of string music, short and transient, which rise and perish upon a single touch; those of other languages are like the notes of wind instruments, sweet and swelling, and lengthened out into variety of modulation.

In the next place we may observe that, where the words are not monosyllables, we often make them so, as much as lies in our power, by our rapidity of pronunciation; as it generally happens in most of our long words which are derived from the Latin, where we contract the length of the syllables, that gives them a grave and solemn air in their own language, to make them more proper for despatch, and more conformable to the genius of our tongue. This we may find in a multitude of words, as "liberty," "conspiracy," "theatre," "orator," &c.

The same natural aversion to loquacity has of late years made a very considerable alteration in our language, by closing in one syllable the termination of our preterperfect tense, as in the words "drown'd," "walk'd," "arriv'd," for "drowned," "walked," "arrived," which has very much disfigured the tongue, and turned a tenth part of our smoothest words into so many clusters of consonants. This is the more remarkable because the want of vowels in our language has been the general complaint of our politest authors, who nevertheless are the men that have made these retrenchments, and consequently very much increased our former scarcity.

This reflection on the words that end in "ed" I have heard in conversation from one of the greatest geniuses this age has produced. I think we may add to the foregoing observation, the change which has happened in our language by the abbreviation of several words that are terminated in "eth," by substituting an "s" in the room of the last syllable, as in "drowns," "walks," "arrives," and innumerable other words, which in the pronunciation of our forefathers were "drowneth," "walketh," "arriveth." This has wonderfully multiplied a letter which was before too frequent in the English tongue, and added to that hissing in our language which is taken so much notice of by foreigners, but at the same time humours our taciturnity, and eases us of many superfluous syllables.

I might here observe that the same single letter on many occasions does the office of a whole word, and represents the "his" and "her" of our forefathers. There is no doubt but the ear of a foreigner, which is the best judge in this case, would very much disapprove of such innovations, which indeed we do ourselves in some measure, by retaining the old termination in writing, and in all the solemn offices of our religion.

As, in the instances I have given, we have epitomised many of our particular words to the detriment of our tongue, so on other occasions we have drawn two words into one, which has likewise very much untuned our language, and clogged it with consonants, as "mayn't," "can't," "shan't," "won't," and the like, for "may not," "can not," "shall not," "will not," &c.

It is perhaps this humour of speaking no more than we needs must which has so miserably curtailed some of our words, that in familiar writings and conversations they often lose all but their first syllables, as in "mob.," "rep.," "pos.," "incog.," and the like; and as all ridiculous words make their first entry into a language by familiar phrases, I dare not answer for these that they will not in time be looked upon as a part of our tongue. We see some of our poets have been so indiscreet as to imitate Hudibras's doggrel expressions in their serious compositions, by throwing out the signs of our substantives which are essential to the English language. Nay, this humour of shortening our language had once run so far, that some of our celebrated authors, among whom we may reckon Sir Roger L'Estrange in particular, began to prune their words of all superfluous letters, as they termed them, in order to adjust the spelling to the pronunciation; which would have confounded all our etymologies, and have quite destroyed our tongue.

We may here likewise observe that our proper names, when familiarised in English, generally dwindle to monosyllables, whereas in other modern languages they receive a softer turn on this occasion, by the addition of a new syllable.--Nick, in Italian, is Nicolini; Jack, in French, Janot; and so of the rest.

There is another particular in our language which is a great instance of our frugality in words, and that is the suppressing of several particles which must be produced in other tongues to make a sentence intelligible. This often perplexes the best writers, when they find the relatives "whom," "which," or "they," at their mercy, whether they may have admission or not; and will never be decided till we have something like an academy, that by the best authorities, and rules drawn from the analogy of languages, shall settle all controversies between grammar and idiom.

I have only considered our language as it shows the genius and natural temper of the English, which is modest, thoughtful, and sincere, and which, perhaps, may recommend the people, though it has spoiled the tongue. We might, perhaps, carry the same thought into other languages, and deduce a great part of what is peculiar to them from the genius of the people who speak them. It is certain the light talkative humour of the French has not a little infected their tongue, which might be shown by many instances; as the genius of the Italians, which is so much addicted to music and ceremony, has moulded all their words and phrases to those particular uses. The stateliness and gravity of the Spaniards shows itself to perfection in the solemnity of their language; and the blunt, honest humour of the Germans sounds better in the roughness of the High-Dutch than it would in a politer tongue.


4 WORD CARDS 3 I J K L

- I -

idiosyncrasy
idyll cf. idle
immanent
imminent
impart
impassive
imperious
impertinent
imperturbable
impervious

impetuous
implacable
importune
imposter
impunity
inadvertent
incandescent
incense
incommode
inculcate He inculcated honesty in his children.

incumbent duties incumbent on all
indictment
indisposed
indolent
ineffable an ineffable joy
inexorable an inexorable passage of time
infliction
ingenuous an ingenuous character cf. ingeious
ingrained
iniquity

injudicious
injunction
inmate cf. innate
innuendo
inquest
insidious
insinuate
insouciance
instill
insufferable
intemperate an intemperate drinker
intercede
interloper
intramural

intrepid
intuition
invective
inveigle
irascible
ire anger
isthmus the Isthmus of Panama


- J -

jabber
jaunt
jaunty
jeer
jerk
jib
jilt She jilted her lover.
jocund
josh
jostle

jubilation
judicious cf. judicial
jumble
juror
juxtaposition


- K -

karma
kernel
kingfisher カワセミ
kirk


- L -

lacerate
lackadaisical
laconic         a laconic reply
lair
landau
lanky
larder pantry
lark have a lark
lassitude
lava

layman
lecher
ledge
lee
leer
legerdemain cunning deception or trckery
legion
lenient
lethargic The patient is weak and lethargic.
licentious

lilt
limber
limp
limpid
linger
lisp
litany
lithe
livery
livid

loquacious
lout
ludicrous
lukewarm
lump Like it or lump it
lurch
lurid lurid posters
luscious luscious peaches